Effects of High Pressure on Biological Systems
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Effects of High Pressure on Biological Systems

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1 Bacteria.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Examples of Pressure Effects on Specific Microbial Systems.- 3 Effects of High-Pressure Gases on Microbes.- References.- 2 Aspects of Eukaryotic Cells.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Eggs: Genetic Manipulations Using High Pressure.- 3 Cartilage: Effects of Hydrostatic Pressure in Articulating Joints.- 4 Platelets: Receptors and Cell Activation.- 5 Erythrocytes: Membrane Transport.- References.- 3 Ion Channels and Nerve Cell Function.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Ion Channels in Excitable Cells.- 3 Transmitter Release at Synapses.- 4 Excitable Cell Behavior.- 5 Conclusion.- References.- 4 Vertebrate Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle.- I Introduction.- 2 High-Pressure Inotropy in Vertebrate Skeletal Muscle.- 3. Mechanisms of High-Pressure Inotropy in Skeletal Muscle.- 4 High-Pressure Inotropy in Vertebrate Cardiac Muscle.- 5 Mechanisms of High-Pressure Inotropy in Cardiac Muscle.- 6 Conclusions.- References.- 5 Fish.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Shallow Water Fish: Effects of Pressure Applied for a Short Period.- 3 Shallow Water Fish: Effects of Pressure Applied for Days.- 4 Deep Water Fish.- 5 Conclusions.- References.- 6 The Nervous System: Man and Laboratory Mammals.- 1 Introduction.- 2 The High-Pressure Nervous Syndrome.- 3 Role of Environmental Parameters.- 4 HPNS and Individual Susceptibility.- 5 Electrophysiological Studies in Whole Animals.- 6 In Vivo Neuropharmacological and Neurochemical Studies.- 7 In Vitro Neurobiological Studies on Synaptic Neurotransmission in Isolated, Integrated Systems.- 8 Conclusions: Origins and Mechanisms of the High-Pressure Nervous Syndrome.- References.
Provided here is an up to date account of how high pressuresaffect cellularprocesses in microorganisms and in
eukaryotic cells. Topics include membranetransport, cell
activation, the excitable properties of cells, muscular
contraction, with particular emphasis on cardiac muscle, and
the role of pressure in the physiology of cartilage in load
bearing joints. Additionally there are thorough reviews of
the effects of pressure on fish and on the central nervous
system of mammals, including man.