Progress in Hydrogeochemistry

Organics - Carbonate Systems - Silicate Systems - Microbiology - Models
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Fritz Frimmel
859 g
235x155x30 mm

This volume offers consolidated scientific contributions to the environmental debate. The role of water from chemical, biochemical, and geologic-hydrological point of view as well as their interactions in soils are discussed.
1 Scope.- 2 Polar Organic Substances and Their Role in the Water-Saturated and -Unsaturated Zones.- 2.0 Introduction.- 2.1 Isolation Procedures and Characterization Methods.- 2.1.1 Isolation and General Characterization of Organic Acids from Pore Water.- 2.1.2 Isolation and Characterization of Soil Humic Matter.- 2.1.3 Isolation and Characterization of Organic Substances in Ground Water and Sediments.- 2.1.4 Chromatographic Characterization of the Acid-Soluble Part of Humic Substances.- 2.1.5 Spectroscopic Characterization of Humic Substances in the Ultraviolet and Visible Region and by Infrared Spectroscopy.- 2.1.6 Temperature-Programmed/Time-Resolved Pyrolysis Field Ionization Mass Spectrometry - a New Method for the Characterization of Humic Substances.- 2.1.7 Interpretation of the Pyrolysis Products of Isolated Humic and Fulvic Acids.- 2.1.8 Characterization of Isolated Humic Material by 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.- 2.1.9 Characterization of Humic Substances Extracted by Organic Solvents.- 2.2 Interaction of Inorganics with Humic Substances.- 2.2.1 Investigation of Metal Complexation by Polarography and Fluorescence Spectroscopy.- 2.2.2 Determination of Complexation Equilibria by the Ion-Exchange Method.- 2.2.3 Sorption of Metals on Humic Material.- 2.2.4 Interactions of Humic Substances with Iodine.- 2.2.5 Experiments on the Influence of Organic Ligands upon Kinetics of Feldspar Weathering.- 2.3 Characterization of Some Organic Acids in the Subsurface of the Sandhausen Ecosystem.- 2.3.4 Organic Acids.- 2.3.5 Conclusions.- 3 Carbonate Systems.- 3.0 Introduction.- 3.1 Dissolution Kinetics in the Generation of Carbonate Ground Waters.- 3.1.1 Theoretical and Experimental Results of the Kinetics of Calcite Dissolution and Precipitation.- 3.1.2 Field Measurements and Laboratory Experiments on Calcite Dissolution Kinetics of Natural Porous Media.- 3.2 Field Studies on Subsurface Water of Selected Sites.- 3.2.1 Pore Water Sampling in Carbonate Terrains.- 3.2.2 Variation of Inorganic Carbon in the Unsaturated Zone of a Carbonate Gravel System.- 3.2.3 Isotope Geochemistry of the Subsurface Carbonate System in Sandhausen and Bocholt.- 3.2.4 Application of Stable Carbon and Sulfur Isotope Models to the Development of Ground Water in a Limestone-Dolomite-Anhydrite-Gypsum Area.- 3.2.5 A dissolution Front at the Contact of Sands to Marly Limestone Aquifers.- 3.2.6 Carbonate Rock Dissolution Under Intermediate System Conditions.- 3.3 Alteration in Karst Systems.- 3.3.1 Mineralogy and Hydrogeochemistry of the Gypsum Karst of Foum Tatahouine, South Tunisia.- 3.3.2 Dedolomitization and Salt Formation in a Semi-Arid Environment.- 3.3.3 Transformation Processes in Paleokarst Sediments and Chemistry of Modern Waters in the Aladag Region, Turkey.- 4 Silicate Systems.- 4.0 Introduction.- 4.1 Redox Reactions in the Subsurface.- 4.1.1 Anoxic Reaction Zones in an Aquifer Influenced by Increasing Nitrate and Sulfate Contents.- 4.1.2 Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopes as Indicators for Nitrification and Denitrification.- 4.1.3 Redox Conditions and Microbial Sulfur Reactions in the Fuhrberger Field Sandy Aquifer.- 4.1.4 Influence of Fine-Grained Cover Beds on the Chemistry of Shallow Ground Water.- 4.1.5 Hydrogeochemical Processes During the Passage of Surface Water and Ground Water Through Genetically Different Organic Sediments.- 4.1.6 Hydrochemical Phenomena in the Dorsten Leakage System.- 4.1.7 Hydrogeochemical Processes in the Hamburg Deep Aquifer System.- 4.2 Rock-Water Interaction.- 4.2.1 Aluminium Speciation in Acid Soil Water and Ground Water.- 4.2.2 Mineral-Pore Water Interaction in Two Soil Types on Pleistocene Sediments at Hamburg.- 4.2.3 Subsurface Hydrochemical Reactions in the Sandhausen Forest Ecosystem.- 4.3 Reaction Kinetics.- 4.3.1 Experimental Methods for Determining Dissolution Rates of Silicates - a Comparison.- 4.3.2 Field Studies on the Kinetics of Silicate Minerals/Water Interaction.- 5 Microbiology
Earth scientists, who have worked together for 6 years in the priority pro gram "Hydrogeochemical Processes in the Hydrological Cycle Within the Unsaturated and Saturated Zones", have summarized the results of their research in this volume. This is the occasion to take stock and then look ahead. The priority program was set up by the Senate of The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft in October 1981. This was preceded by lengthy and careful preparation by a Program Committee, and was finally recom mended by the Senate Commission for Joint Research in Earth Sciences. The main aim was the interdisciplinary research of geochemical processes in natural systems in the total underground water cycle, whereby water pollution was not to be considered. Officially started on 1 September 1982, the program has received a grant of DM 10. 9 Mio. from the DFG, and this has enabled it to support a total of 50 projects. Although at the beginning, practice-oriented projects, which were funded elsewhere, were not to be included, many of the results are applicable. The four categories presented were investigated with vary ing intensity. An early concentration on certain representative fields of measurement and research areas proved to be the right approach - this avoided a waste of effort in other fields. During the period of the priority program, new and topical questions arose, e. g.