Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology and Immunology

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Albert Balows
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Nucleic Acid Detection.- Controlled Synthetic Oligonucleotide Networks for the Detection of Pathogenic Organisms.- Chemiluminescence: Nucleic Acid Detection for the Future.- Q-Beta Amplification Assays.- Nucleotide Sequence Determination As a Diagnostic Tool.- Bacterial Diagnosis by Detection of rRNA.- Targeting Ribosomal RNA Sequences: A Universal Approach for the Detection and Identification of Microorganisms.- Phylogenetic Identification of Uncultivated Microorganisms in Natural Habitats.- rRNA Probes as Tools for Molecular Epidemiology of Microbial Infections.- Current Methods for Detection of DNA/Ribosomal RNA Hybrids.- Development and Application of Ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid Probes for Species-Specific Detection of Microbial Pathogens.- Immunoassays.- How to Optimize Rapid and Simple Immunoassays.- Noninstrumental Detection of Influenza Viruses by Enzyme Immunoassay.- Application of Dot Immunobinding Assay (DIBA) and Reversed Passive Hemagglutination Assay (RPHA) in Detection of Shigella flexneri from Fecal Samples.- Synthetic Peptides in Antibody Assays.- Peptides as Specific Recognition Devices.- The Significance of IgG Peptides and Sugars for the Development of Autoimmunity in Rheumatoid Arthritis.- Synthetic Peptides Derived from HIV-1, HIV-2, and HTLV I Envelope Proteins in Human Retrovirus Serology.- Flow Cytometry in Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases.- Analysis of Bacteria in Environmental and Medical Microbiology by Flow Cytometry.- Measurement of CD8 Subsets Discriminates Among Clinical Stages of HIV-1 Infected Patients.- Analysis by Flow Cytometry of Interferon-?-Expressing Lymphocytes as a Method for the Rapid Diagnosis of Viral Infection.- Bacterial Growth Monitoring.- Automated Detection of Bacterial Growth for Susceptibility Testing.- Image Analysis for the Assessment of Bacterial Growth.- Conductance and Impedance Methods for Detecting Pathogens.- Assay of Antimicrobial Agents.- Concentrations of Parenterally Administered Antimicrobial Agents in Faeces in Relation to Changes in the Human Intestinal Microflora.- Pharmacokinetic Aspects of Antibiotic Assays.- The Assay of New Antimicrobials and the Penetration of Drugs into Tissues.- Clinical Needs for Assays of New Antimicrobial Agents.- Borrelliosis.- Laboratory Detection of Lyme Borrelliosis.- Addressing the Antiquity of Lyme Disease: Detection of B. burgdorferi DNA in Museum Specimens of Ixodes dammini.- New Understanding of the Epidemiology of Lyme Disease.- Mycobacterial Diagnosis.- Current Methods for Rapid Detection and Identification of Mycobacteria.- Detection and Identification of Mycobacterium Species Using Gene Amplification Techniques.- Application of Gene Amplification to Clinical Mycobacteriology Laboratories.- Identification of Mycobacteria by ELISA using Monoclonal Antibodies.- Serological Tests for the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis and Leprosy.- A Rapid System for the Identification of Mycobacteria.- Chlamydia pneumoniae Infections.- Chlamydia pneumoniae, Strain TWAR, a New Important Pathogen.- Culture and Rapid Methods in Diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae Infections.- New Approaches in the Etiological Diagnosis of Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae Infections.- Problems in Diagnosis of Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae Infections.- Human Retroviral Infections.- Priorities in AIDS Diagnostics in the 1990s: Towards the Monitoring of Virus Replication.- Epidemiology of HTLV-I in Africa.- Diagnosis of Papillomavirus Infections.- Detection of Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infections by the Polymerase Chain Reaction.- The Antibody Response to Human Papillomavirus.- Rapid Diagnosis of Mycoses.- Evaluation of Commercial Kits and Systems for the Rapid Identification and Biotyping of Yeasts.- The Diagnosis and Management of AIDS Patients with Mycotic Infections.- Rapid Serodiagnostic Procedures for the Mycoses.- The Importance of and Increasing Need for Rapid Detection of Mycotic Agents.- New Methods for the Diagnosis of Parasitic Infections.- DNA Probes on the
The International Congress on Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology and Immunology, held in 1990 (RAMI-90) in Helsinki Espoo, Finland, attracted considerable interest from the international scientific community. This reflects both the rapid progress and numerous new challenges in the field covered by RAMI-90. New biotechnical approaches, such as the polymerase chain reaction, recombinant gene products and synthetic peptides are gaining wide acceptance. New important pathogens have emerged, such as hepatitis C, Helicobacter pylori, Borrelia burgdorferi, herpes virus 6 and Chlamydia pneumoniae. "Super streptococci" are recognized again as well as the agent responsible for bovine spongiform enceph alopathy. The current diagnostic methods are clearly unsatisfactory for many of these and other microbes. Moreover, there is an increas ing need for more accurate microbial control of our environment, and of the food and water we consume. What is needed are rapid, sensitive and reliable procedures which, on the one hand, should be suitable for automation and, on the other hand, presented in a cost-effective version suitable for field use. We view these needs as a clear and loud challenge for future RAMI congresses. This volume provides an up-to-date presentation of the highlights of RAMI-90 and prospects for the future. For the preparation of this volume we wish to thank Dr. Maija Leinonen for her invaluable con sultation and Ms. Virpi Tiilikainen for secretarial assistance. ANTTI V AHERI RICHARD C. TILTON ALBERT BALOWS Contents Nucleic Acid Detection Controlled Synthetic Oligonucleotide Networks for the Detection of Pathogenic Organisms M. S. Urdea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .