Acid Deposition

Origins, Impacts and Abatement Strategies
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James W. S. Longhurst
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1. Emissions, Chemistry and Deposition.- Chemistry of Precipitation in Haifa, Israel, 1981-1989.- Acid aerosols.- Oceanic Sources of Sulphur and their Contribution to the Atmospheric Budget: a Review.- Acid Precipitation Research in Brazil: A Short Review.- 2. Ecosystem Effects.- The Application of Cause-Effect Criteria to the Relationship between Air Pollution and Forest Decline in Europe.- Effects of Acidic Deposition on High-Elevation Spruce-Fir Forests in the United States.- The Release of Aluminium into Soil Solutions and Drainage Waters.- Results of Research into Decay of the Fir (Abies Alba Mill.) in the Pyrenees. New Data about Nutritional and Physiological Disturbances..- Indirect Effects of Acid Rain Mediated by Mineral Leaching: An Evaluation of Potential Roles of Leaching from the Canopy.- Contribution to Forest Decline Studies; Biochemical Effects of Atmospheric Pollution (Acid Rain) in Picea Trees.- Acid Waters in the United Kingdom: Evidence, Effects and Trends.- The Influence of Reductions in Atmospheric Sulphate Deposition on Ion Leaching from Podzolic Soils Under Hardwood Forest.- Crown Structure and Tree Vitality.- New Forest Damages in Central Europe: Development, Causes and Policies.- The Effect of Liming Agricultural Land on the Water Quality of the River Esk, Cumbria.- 3. Effects on Structural Materials.- Background and Local Contributions to Acidic Deposition and their Relative Impact on Building Stone Decay: A Case Study of Northern Ireland.- Some Aspects of the Surface Chemistry Involved in the Weathering of Building Limestone.- Critical Loads and Critical Levels for the Effects of Sulphur and Nitrogen Compounds.- 4. Mitigation, Control and Management.- Control of Nitrogen Oxides from Coal Combustion.- Using Science to Develop and Assess Strategies to Reduce Acid Deposition in Europe.- "Forget the Environment - The Real Battle's About Jobs, Coal and Politics as Usual". Clean Air Legislation and Flue Gas Desulphurisation in the USA.
The subject of acid deposition remains one of the most urgent of our contemporary environmental problems. Research programmes are continually redefming our understanding of cause and effect and hence the continuing need for a timely and authoritative series addressing these issues. This volume seeks to review and defme our contemporary understanding of acid deposition by reference to new international data and as a consequence assist the definition of our future research requirements and policy developments. International contributions to the volume are drawn from the Federal Republic of Germany, the U.S.A., Canada, Brazil, Switzerland, Austria, Israel, France and the United Kingdom. Some of these nations have experienced acid deposition on a regional scale for considerable periods of time; for others the phenomenon is an emerging problem. This collection of papers has been compiled by invitation to eminent members of the acid deposition research community and by selection from a carefully targeted call for papers. It is primarily designed to meet the needs of researchers, lecturers and postgraduate students in environmental disciplines and for environmental policy makers. It is of interest to professionals in related disciplines and essential as a reference text for libraries. The volume is divided into four broad themes: Emissions, chemistry and deposition; Ecosystem effects (freshwater, soils and forest systems); Effects on structural materials; Mitigation, control and management. Each of these sections provides an overview of contemporary understanding, presents new experimental or field evidence and provides guidance for our future research agenda.