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1 Introduction to Fracture.- 1.1 Basic Concepts of Elastic Fracture.- 1.1.1 The Stress Concentration Factor.- 1.1.2 The Griffith Energy-Balance Concept.- 1.1.3 Obreimoff's Experiment.- 1.1.4 Fracture Mechanics.- 1.1.5 The Maximum ??? Criterion.- 1.1.6 Fracture in Compression.- 1.1.7 Experimental.- 1.2 Plastic Zones Ahead of the Crack.- 1.2.1 Introduction.- 1.2.2 Various Manifestations of the Plastic Zone.- 1.2.3 The Size of the Plastic Zone in Silicate Glasses.- 1.2.4 Plane Strain and Plane Stress.- 1.2.5 Secondary Cracks in the Plastic Zone.- 1.2.6 The Damage Zone.- 1.3 Atomistic Concepts of the Crack Tip.- 1.3.1 Thomson's Three Prototypes.- 1.3.2 The LRT Atomistic Surface Force Model.- 1.3.3 The Dissociative Chemisorption Model.- 1.4 Kinetic Processes in Fracture.- 1.4.1 Subcritical Crack Growth.- 1.4.2 Failure Prediction.- 1.4.3 Supercritical Crack Velocities.- 1.4.4 Fracture Branching.- 1.5 Microstructural Aspects of Fracture in Polycrystalline (Grainy) Materials.- 1.5.1 General.- 1.5.2 Dependence of Mechanical Properties on Microstructure.- 1.5.3 Crack Shielding.- 1.5.4 Fracture in Concrete.- 1.5.5 Limitations and Deviations from Simple Microstructure-Strength Relationship.- 1.6 Fracture in Rocks.- 1.6.1 Joint Initiation Stage.- 1.6.2 Joint Propagation.- 1.6.3 Joint Arrest.- 2 Fractography in Technical Materials.- 2.1 Fracture Surface Morphology - Basic Geometry.- 2.1.1 Introduction.- 2.1.2 Fracture Categories.- 2.1.3 The Quantitative Mirror Plane.- 2.1.4 Crack Branching.- 2.2 Terminology.- 2.3 Applied Fractography.- 2.3.1 Fractography as a Tool of Fracture Diagnosis in Glass Bottles.- 2.3.2 The Fractography of Metal Failures.- 2.3.3 Fractography in Polymethylmethacrylate.- 3 Rock Fractography.- 3.1 Fracture Markings on Joint Surfaces.- 3.1.1 Early Studies.- 3.1.2 Plumes and Related Structures.- 3.1.3 Rib Markings.- 3.1.4 Combined Markings of Plumes and Ribs.- 3.1.5 Affinities of Specific Joint Markings to Certain Joint Directions.- 3.1.6 The Fringe.- 3.1.7 Discoid Radial and Ring Joints.- 3.1.8 Fracture Mechanisms.- 3.1.9 Fracture Markings in Thermally Deformed Rocks and in Granite.- 3.2 Induced Fracturing in Rocks.- 3.2.1 Controlled Laboratory Conditions.- 3.2.2 Fractography Induced by Coring.- 3.2.3 Markings Induced by Quarryin.- 4 Characterization and Classification of Fracture Surface Morphology in Geologic Formations.- 4.1 Qualitative Characterization of Fracture Surface Markings.- 4.1.1 Descriptive Parameters of Fracture Surface Markings.- 4.2 Quantitative Characterization of Fracture Surface Markings.- 4.2.1 Measureable Parameters of Fracture Surface Markings.- 4.3 Classification of Fracture Surface Markings.- 5 Tectonofractography.- 5.1 Application of Joint Surface Morphology in Tectonics.- 5.1.1 Assumptions.- 5.1.2 Problems Involved in the Transition from Material Science to Tectonophysics.- 5.2 Burial Jointing.- 5.2.1 Early Burial Joints in Lower Eocene Chalks Near Beer Sheva.- 5.2.2 Jointing in Middle Eocene Chalks South of Beer Sheva.- 5.2.3 Burial Joints and Syntectonic Joints in the Appalachian Plateau, U.S.A..- 5.2.4 Common Features of Burial Joints.- 5.3 Syntectonic Jointing.- 5.3.1 Syntectonic Jointing in Santonian Chalks, Israel.- 5.3.2 Upper Cretaceous Chalks in East France.- 5.3.3 Upper Cretaceous Chalks in South England.- 5.3.4 Upper Palaeozoic Fractures in Shales of the Appalachian Plateau, New York.- 5.3.5 Jointing in the Entrada Sandstone, Utah.- 5.3.6 Syntectonic Jointing in Association with Fault Termination.- 5.3.7 Syntectonic Joints Related to Unfolding.- 5.3.8 Syntectonic Discoidal Fracturing in Flint Clays.- 5.3.9 Characteristic Features of Syntectonic Joints.- 5.4 Uplift Jointing.- 5.4.1 Burial Joints and Uplift Joints in Lower Eocene Chalks Around Beer Sheva.- 5.4.2 Uplift Joints in Middle Eocene Chalks and Limestones from the Northern Negev (Southern Israel).- 5.4.3 Unloading and Release Joints from the Appalachian Plateau, U.S.A..- 5.4.4 Sequential Formation of Uplift Joints.- 5.4.5
" ... he who repeats a thing in the name of him who said it brings deliverance to the world ... " Mishnah, Sayings of the Fathers 6; 6 Main Objectives The present book intends to fulfill a number of purposes, which are arranged under the following scheme: 1. A topical review of main subjects in fractography, that branch of science which analyses fracture surface morphology and related features and their causes and mechanisms in technological materials. Among the materials that bear significant affinities to rock are in organic glass, ceramics, metals and polymer glass. 2. A historical review of the main studies published to date on rock fractography. In both these fields of review, one is confronted by the similarities between small-scale (micro metre) and large-scale (tens of metres) fracture surface morphologies. The similarities, on the one hand, and the differences on the other must surely promote further development of fractographical approaches in structural geology, where extrapola tion from microfractography to large-scale fractography is virtually a directive. As geologists become more familiar with the fractography of rocks, they undoubtedly will become aware of the great power of this descriptive discipline as a tool, in both qualitative and quantitative analysis. Rock fractography must yet be routinely applied in the structural analysis of rock formations in which fracture morphology is sufficiently prominent or extensive.