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Pyretics and Antipyretics

Pyretics and Antipyretics

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With contributions by numerous experts
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1 Body Heat.- 2 Fever and its Role in Disease: Rationale for Antipyretics.- A. Fever.- B. The Role of Fever in Disease.- C. Antipyretic Drugs.- D. Effects of Antipyresis on Survival.- E. Clinical Indications and Contraindications for Antipyretic Therapy.- References.- 3 Thermoregulation: Its Change During Infection with Endotoxin-Producing Micro-organisms.- A. Introduction.- B. The Elevated Set-Point Concept of Fever.- C. The Pyrogens.- I. Bacterial Endotoxins.- II. Endogenous (Leucocyte) Pyrogens.- III. The Prostaglandins.- D. Pyrogen Action.- I. Points of Action in the Central Nervous System.- II. Effects on the Electrical Activities of Hypothalamic Neurones.- E. Areas of Current Concern and Doubt.- I. More than One Central Point of Action of Pyrogens?.- II. The Biphasic Pattern of Experimentally Induced Fever: Two Causative Factors?.- III. The Pyrogenic Metabolites of Arachidonic Acid.- IV. Are Pyrogens Only Pyrogens?.- V. Is Fever of Physiological Benefit?.- F. Mechanisms of Thermoregulation.- I. The Set-Point Machinery: Theory.- II. The Antiquity of Homeostasis and of Pyrogen Responsiveness.- III. The Pattern of Neural Connections.- G. Models for Thermoregulation.- I. Point (or Points) of Action of Pyrogens.- II. Neuronal Model of Central Thermoregulatory Connections in Sheep.- III. Point of Action of Bacterial Endotoxin in Sheep.- IV. Neuronal Theory of Fever Induction.- H. Thermoregulatory Agents.- I. Central Nervous 5HT.- II. Central Nervous Norepinephrine.- III. The Central Thermoregulatory Effects of ACh.- J. Other Set-Point Theories.- I. The Monoamine Balance Set-Point Theory.- II. The Ionic Balance Set-Point Theory.- K. Concluding Comments.- I. The Independence of Fever from the Influence of Ambient Temperature.- II. The Upper Limit to the Febrile Response.- III. More than One Pathway from Infection to Fever?.- References.- 4 Exogenous Pyrogens.- A. Introduction.- I. General Considerations.- B. Viruses.- I. Experimental Fevers with Viruses.- II. Interferon.- C. Gram-Positive Organisms.- I. Intact Organisms.- II. Extracellular Products.- III. Cell Wall Components.- D. Gram-Negative Bacteria.- I. Cell Wall Structure.- II. Pyrogenicity of LPS.- III. LPS Fever and EP Production.- IV. LPS Structure and Ability to Produce Fever.- V. Lipid A and Pyrogenicity.- VI. Pyrogenic Tolerance to LPS.- E. Mycobacteria.- I. Febrile Reactions of BCG-Sensitized Animals.- II. Release of EP from Cells Incubated with Tuberculin.- F. Fungi.- I. Pyrogenicity of Fungal Cells.- II. Fever from Fungal Products.- G. Non-Microbial Antigens.- I. Antibody-Mediated Fever.- II. Cell-Mediated Immune Fever.- H. Pyrogenic Steroids.- I. Fever in Humans.- II. Pyrogenic Steroid-Induced EP.- J. Miscellaneous Exogenous Pyrogens.- I. Polynucleotides.- II. Colchicine and Vinblastine.- III. Bleomycin.- IV. Synthetic Adjuvants.- References.- 5 Endogenous Pyrogens.- A. Introduction.- B. Nomenclature.- C. Assay of Endogenous Pyrogen.- D. Sources of LP.- I. Cells Capable of Pyrogen Release.- II. Animal Species Releasing EP.- E. Cellular Events.- F. Isolation and Characterization of EP.- I. Methods for Purification.- II. Heterogeneity of EP.- References.- 6 Role of Central Neurotransmitters in Fever.- A. Introduction.- B. Noradrenaline.- I. Depleting Agents.- II. Sympathomimetic Agents and Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors.- III. Adrenoceptor Antagonists.- IV. Brain Catecholamine Levels.- V. Conclusion.- C. 5-Hydroxytryptamine.- I. Depleting Agents.- II. 5-Hydroxytryptamine Agonists and Uptake Inhibitors.- III. Indoleamine Antagonists.- IV. Brain 5-Hydroxytryptamine Levels and Turnover.- V. Conclusion.- D. Acetylcholine.- I. Cholinergic Antagonists.- II. Cholinomimetics and Anticholinesterases.- III. Conclusion.- E. Other Amines.- I. Dopamine.- II. ?-Aminobutyric Acid.- III. Histamine and Taurine.- F. Peptides.- I. Kinins.- II. Thyroid-Releasing Hormone.- III. Opioids.- G. Conclusion.- References.- 7 The Role of Ions in Thermoregulation and Fever.- A. Introduction.-
Fever has always been recognised as the major sign of infectious disease as well as being associated with other illnesses. The suggestion of publishing a volume dedicated exclusively to the subject of fever in the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology series was one that greatly appealed to me, and I felt very honoured when I was invited to edit it. The first ideas about this volume were conceived in the latter part of 1977 and by the middle of 1978 the first authors had been approached. As is usual with such publications, by the time the first manuscripts were beginning to arrive in the late spring of 1979 there were still a few chapters for which authors had not yet been found. Finally by the end of 1981 the volume was complete. Because of the span of time over which the chapters were written, some refer to more recent work than others; however, I do not feel that this detracts from the overall contribution of all the chapters.

Mehr zum Thema

    Fieber; Fiebersenkendes Mittel; Pyrogen; infectious disease; Pharmacology

Produktdetails

Autor: A. S. Milton
ISBN-13: 9783642685712
ISBN: 3642685714
Einband: Book
Seiten: 724
Gewicht: 1224 g
Format: 244x170x38 mm
Sprache: Englisch
Editiert von: A. S. Milton
Inhaltsangabe1 Body Heat.- 2 Fever and its Role in Disease: Rationale for Antipyretics.- A. Fever.- B. The Role of Fever in Disease.- C. Antipyretic Drugs.- D. Effects of Antipyresis on Survival.- E. Clinical Indications and Contraindications for Antipyretic Therapy.- References.- 3 Thermoregulation: Its Change During Infection with Endotoxin-Producing Micro-organisms.- A. Introduction.- B. The Elevated Set-Point Concept of Fever.- C. The Pyrogens.- I. Bacterial Endotoxins.- II. Endogenous (Leucocyte) Pyrogens.- III. The Prostaglandins.- D. Pyrogen Action.- I. Points of Action in the Central Nervous System.- II. Effects on the Electrical Activities of Hypothalamic Neurones.- E. Areas of Current Concern and Doubt.- I. More than One Central Point of Action of Pyrogens?.- II. The Biphasic Pattern of Experimentally Induced Fever: Two Causative Factors?.- III. The Pyrogenic Metabolites of Arachidonic Acid.- IV. Are Pyrogens Only Pyrogens?.- V. Is Fever of Physiological Benefit?.- F. Mechanisms of Thermoregulation.- I. The Set-Point Machinery: Theory.- II. The Antiquity of Homeostasis and of Pyrogen Responsiveness.- III. The Pattern of Neural Connections.- G. Models for Thermoregulation.- I. Point (or Points) of Action of Pyrogens.- II. Neuronal Model of Central Thermoregulatory Connections in Sheep.- III. Point of Action of Bacterial Endotoxin in Sheep.- IV. Neuronal Theory of Fever Induction.- H. Thermoregulatory Agents.- I. Central Nervous 5HT.- II. Central Nervous Norepinephrine.- III. The Central Thermoregulatory Effects of ACh.- J. Other Set-Point Theories.- I. The Monoamine Balance Set-Point Theory.- II. The Ionic Balance Set-Point Theory.- K. Concluding Comments.- I. The Independence of Fever from the Influence of Ambient Temperature.- II. The Upper Limit to the Febrile Response.- III. More than One Pathway from Infection to Fever?.- References.- 4 Exogenous Pyrogens.- A. Introduction.- I. General Considerations.- B. Viruses.- I. Experimental Fevers with Viruses.- II. Interferon.- C. Gram-Positive Organisms.- I. Intact Organisms.- II. Extracellular Products.- III. Cell Wall Components.- D. Gram-Negative Bacteria.- I. Cell Wall Structure.- II. Pyrogenicity of LPS.- III. LPS Fever and EP Production.- IV. LPS Structure and Ability to Produce Fever.- V. Lipid A and Pyrogenicity.- VI. Pyrogenic Tolerance to LPS.- E. Mycobacteria.- I. Febrile Reactions of BCG-Sensitized Animals.- II. Release of EP from Cells Incubated with Tuberculin.- F. Fungi.- I. Pyrogenicity of Fungal Cells.- II. Fever from Fungal Products.- G. Non-Microbial Antigens.- I. Antibody-Mediated Fever.- II. Cell-Mediated Immune Fever.- H. Pyrogenic Steroids.- I. Fever in Humans.- II. Pyrogenic Steroid-Induced EP.- J. Miscellaneous Exogenous Pyrogens.- I. Polynucleotides.- II. Colchicine and Vinblastine.- III. Bleomycin.- IV. Synthetic Adjuvants.- References.- 5 Endogenous Pyrogens.- A. Introduction.- B. Nomenclature.- C. Assay of Endogenous Pyrogen.- D. Sources of LP.- I. Cells Capable of Pyrogen Release.- II. Animal Species Releasing EP.- E. Cellular Events.- F. Isolation and Characterization of EP.- I. Methods for Purification.- II. Heterogeneity of EP.- References.- 6 Role of Central Neurotransmitters in Fever.- A. Introduction.- B. Noradrenaline.- I. Depleting Agents.- II. Sympathomimetic Agents and Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors.- III. Adrenoceptor Antagonists.- IV. Brain Catecholamine Levels.- V. Conclusion.- C. 5-Hydroxytryptamine.- I. Depleting Agents.- II. 5-Hydroxytryptamine Agonists and Uptake Inhibitors.- III. Indoleamine Antagonists.- IV. Brain 5-Hydroxytryptamine Levels and Turnover.- V. Conclusion.- D. Acetylcholine.- I. Cholinergic Antagonists.- II. Cholinomimetics and Anticholinesterases.- III. Conclusion.- E. Other Amines.- I. Dopamine.- II. ?-Aminobutyric Acid.- III. Histamine and Taurine.- F. Peptides.- I. Kinins.- II. Thyroid-Releasing Hormone.- III. Opioids.- G. Conclusion.- References.- 7 The Role of Ions in Thermoregulation and Fever.- A. Introduction.- B.

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Autor: A. S. Milton
ISBN-13:: 9783642685712
ISBN: 3642685714
Erscheinungsjahr: 07.12.2011
Verlag: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Gewicht: 1224g
Seiten: 724
Sprache: Englisch
Auflage Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1982
Sonstiges: Taschenbuch, 244x170x38 mm