Principles of Igneous Petrology

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ISBN-13:
9783642493560
Einband:
Book
Erscheinungsdatum:
25.04.2012
Seiten:
392
Autor:
S. Maaloe
Gewicht:
672 g
Format:
244x170x21 mm
Sprache:
Englisch
Beschreibung:

I Monary Systems.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Monary Phase Relations.- 3 Phase Changes Within the Upper Mantle.- II Binary Systems.- 1 Introduction.- 2 The Phase Rule.- 3 The Lever Rule.- 4 Binary Isomorphous Systems.- 5 Equilibrium Crystallization.- 6 Fractional Crystallization.- 7 Influence of Additional Components and Pressure.- 8 Partial Melting.- 9 Binary Isomorphous System with Minimum.- 10 Eutectic Systems.- 11 Partial Melting.- 12 Eutectic System with Solid Solution.- 13 Partial Melting.- 14 Peritectic Systems.- 15 Equilibrium Crystallization.- 16 Fractional Crystallization.- 17 Partial Melting.- 18 Peritectic System with Solid Solution.- 19 Equilibrium Crystallization.- 20 Fractional Crystallization.- 21 Partial Melting.- 22 Congruent System.- 23 Binary Exsolution.- 24 Liquid Immiscibility.- 25 Principles of Construction.- III Ternary Systems.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Gibbs' Triangle.- 3 Coordinate Transformations.- 4 Space Diagram and Projection.- 5 Ternary Eutectic System.- 6 Crystallization.- 7 Partial Melting.- 8 Ternary Lever Rules.- 9 Swanson's II Rule.- 10 The Tangent Rule.- 11 Quantitative Analysis - Trend Estimate.- 12 Binary and Ternary Congruent Compounds.- 13 Crystallization Vectors.- 14 Ternary Peritectic System.- 15 Equilibrium Crystallization.- 16 Fractional Crystallization.- 17 Partial Melting of Composition Z.- 18 Solid Solution.- 19 One Solid Phase.- 20 Albite-Anorthite-Silica System.- 21 Equilibrium Crystallization.- 22 Fractional Crystallization.- 23 Solid Solution - Two Solids.- 24 Equilibrium Crystallization.- 25 Fractional Crystallization.- 26 Solid Solution - Peritectic System.- 27 Types of Univariant Curves in Ternary Systems.- 28 Eutectic Crystallization.- 29 Eutectic-Peritectic Transition.- 30 Peritectic Crystallization.- 31 Peritectic-Eutectic Transition.- IV Pseudobinary Systems.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Rhines Phase Rule.- 3 Ternary Eutectic System.- 4 Ternary System with a Congruent Compound.- 5 Ternary System with an Incongruent Compound.- 6 Ternary System with Two Incongruent Compounds.- 7 Pseudobinary Joins Within the Ternary Systems Wollastonite-Enstatite-Alumina.- V P-T Diagrams.- 1 Pressure-Temperature Diagrams.- 2 Eutectic System.- 3 Congruent-Incongruent Transition.- 4 Congruent Compound.- 5 Ternary Eutectic System.- 6 Lherzolite.- 7 Tholeiite.- VI Schreinemakers' Phase Theory.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Variance.- 3 The P-T-x Diagram for a Binary Eutectic System.- 4 The Bounding Theorem.- 5 Morey-Schreinemakers' Theorem.- 6 The Overlap Theorem.- 7 Principle of Opposition.- 8 Arrangement of Univariant Curves.- 9 Monary Systems.- 10 Binary Systems.- 11 Degenerate Systems.- 12 Ternary Systems.- 13 Examples of Ternary Chemographs.- 14 Quaternary Systems.- VII Gas-Bearing Systems.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Binary and Multicomponent Phase Relations.- 3 P-T Diagrams of Rock-H2O Systems.- 4 Phase Relations in the Presence of Carbon Dioxide.- 5 CaO-MgO-CO2.- 6 Carbonation Reactions.- 7 Liquid Immiscibility.- 8 Gas Contents of Magmas.- 9 Nominal Anhydrous Minerals.- VIII Oxygen Fugacity.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Equations of State for Gases.- 3 Ideal Gases.- 4 Mixtures of Ideal Gases.- 5 Van der Waals' Equation of State.- 6 Reduced Equation of State.- 7 Fugacity.- 8 Fugacity of Van der Waals' Gas.- 9 Coefficient of Fugacity from Reduced Parameters.- 10 Solid Buffers.- IX Partial Melting.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Parameters Controlling Primary Magmas.- 3 Estimation of Primary Magma Compositions.- 4 Partial Melting in a Ternary Eutectic System.- 5 Partial Melting of Lherzolite.- 6 Melting Curves of Lherzolite.- 7 Partial Melting of a Granitic Composition.- 8 Influence of Pressure on the Liquid Composition.- 9 Partial Melting by Adiabatic Ascent.- 10 Adiabatic Ascent of a One-Component System.- 11 Adiabatic Ascent of a Ternary System.- 12 Partial Melting of Lherzolite.- 13 Geochemical Relationships of Partial Melting.- 14 Types of Partial Melting.- 15 Batch Melting, One Solid Phase.- 16 Fractional Melting, One Solid Phase.- 17
Igneous petrology was to some extent essentially a descriptive sci ence until about 1960. The results were mainly obtained from field work, major element analyses, and microscopical studies. During the 1960's two simultaneous developments took place, plate tectonics became generally accepted, and the generation of magmas could now be related to the geodynamic features like convection cells and subduction zones. The other new feature was the development of new analytical apparatus which allowed high accuracy analyses of trace elements and isotopes. In addition it became possible to do ex perimental studies at pressures up to 100 kbar. During the 1970's a large amount of analytical data was obtained and it became evident that the igneous processes that control the compositions of magmas are not that simple to determine. The composition of a magma is controlled by the compositions of its source, the degree of partial melting, and the degree of fractionation. In order to understand the significance of these various processes the relationship between the physical processes and their geochemical consequences should be known. Presently there are several theories that attempt to explain the origin of the various magma types, and these theories can only be evaluated by turning the different ideas into quantitative models. We will so to speak have to do some book keeping for the various theories in order to see which ones are valid. the present book is intended as an introduction to the more fun damental aspects of quantitative igneous petrology.