Global Positioning System

Theory and Practice
 Taschenbuch
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ISBN-13:
9783211835340
Einband:
Taschenbuch
Erscheinungsdatum:
01.01.2001
Seiten:
382
Autor:
Bernhard Hofmann-Wellenhof
Gewicht:
611 g
Format:
234x159x24 mm
Sprache:
Englisch
Beschreibung:
Revised edition of the classic reference book
1 Introduction.- 1.1 The origins of surveying.- 1.2 Development of global surveying techniques.- 1.2.1 Optical global triangulation.- 1.2.2 Electromagnetic global trilateration.- 1.3 History of the Global Positioning System.- 1.3.1 Navigating with GPS.- 1.3.2 Surveying with GPS.- 2 Overview of GPS.- 2.1 Basic concept.- 2.2 Space segment.- 2.2.1 Constellation.- 2.2.2 Satellites.- 2.2.3 Operational capabilities.- 2.2.4 Denial of accuracy and access.- 2.3 Control segment.- 2.3.1 Master control station.- 2.3.2 Monitor stations.- 2.3.3 Ground control stations.- 2.4 User segment.- 2.4.1 User categories.- 2.4.2 Receiver types.- 2.4.3 Information services.- 3 Reference systems.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Coordinate systems.- 3.2.1 Definitions.- 3.2.2 Transformations.- 3.3 Time systems.- 3.3.1 Definitions.- 3.3.2 Conversions.- 3.3.3 Calendar.- 4 Satellite orbits.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Orbit description.- 4.2.1 Keplerian motion.- 4.2.2 Perturbed motion.- 4.2.3 Disturbing accelerations.- 4.3 Orbit determination.- 4.3.1 Keplerian orbit.- 4.3.2 Perturbed orbit.- 4.4 Orbit dissemination.- 4.4.1 Tracking networks.- 4.4.2 Ephemerides.- 5 Satellite signal.- 5.1 Signal structure.- 5.1.1 Physical fundamentals.- 5.1.2 Components of the signal.- 5.2 Signal processing.- 5.2.1 Receiver design.- 5.2.2 Processing techniques.- 6 Observables.- 6.1 Data acquisition.- 6.1.1 Code pseudoranges.- 6.1.2 Phase pseudoranges.- 6.1.3 Doppler data.- 6.1.4 Biases and noise.- 6.2 Data combinations.- 6.2.1 Linear phase combinations.- 6.2.2 Code pseudorange smoothing.- 6.3 Atmospheric effects.- 6.3.1 Phase and group velocity.- 6.3.2 Ionospheric refraction.- 6.3.3 Tropospheric refraction.- 6.3.4 Atmospheric monitoring.- 6.4 Relativistic effects.- 6.4.1 Special relativity.- 6.4.2 General relativity.- 6.4.3 Relevant relativistic effects for GPS.- 6.5 Antenna phase center offset and variation.- 6.6 Multipath.- 6.6.1 General remarks.- 6.6.2 Mathematical model.- 6.6.3 Multipath reduction.- 7 Surveying with GPS.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.1.1 Terminology definitions.- 7.1.2 Observation techniques.- 7.1.3 Field equipment.- 7.2 Planning a GPS survey.- 7.2.1 General remarks.- 7.2.2 Presurvey planning.- 7.2.3 Field reconnaissance.- 7.2.4 Monumentation.- 7.2.5 Organizational design.- 7.3 Surveying procedure.- 7.3.1 Preobservation.- 7.3.2 Observation.- 7.3.3 Postobservation.- 7.3.4 Ties to control monuments.- 7.4 In situ data processing.- 7.4.1 Data transfer.- 7.4.2 Data processing.- 7.4.3 Trouble shooting and quality control.- 7.4.4 Datum transformations.- 7.4.5 Computation of plane coordinates.- 7.5 Survey report.- 8 Mathematical models for positioning.- 8.1 Point positioning.- 8.1.1 Point positioning with code ranges.- 8.1.2 Point positioning with carrier phases.- 8.1.3 Point positioning with Doppler data.- 8.2 Differential positioning.- 8.2.1 Basic concept.- 8.2.2 DGPS with code ranges.- 8.2.3 DGPS with phase ranges.- 8.3 Relative positioning.- 8.3.1 Phase differences.- 8.3.2 Correlations of the phase combinations.- 8.3.3 Static relative positioning.- 8.3.4 Kinematic relative positioning.- 8.3.5 Pseudokinematic relative positioning.- 9 Data processing.- 9.1 Data preprocessing.- 9.1.1 Data handling.- 9.1.2 Cycle slip detection and repair.- 9.2 Ambiguity resolution.- 9.2.1 General aspects.- 9.2.2 Basic approaches.- 9.2.3 Search techniques.- 9.2.4 Ambiguity validation.- 9.3 Adjustment, filtering, and smoothing.- 9.3.1 Least squares adjustment.- 9.3.2 Kalman filtering.- 9.3.3 Smoothing.- 9.4 Adjustment of mathematical GPS models.- 9.4.1 Linearization.- 9.4.2 Linear model for point positioning with code ranges.- 9.4.3 Linear model for point positioning with carrier phases.- 9.4.4 Linear model for relative positioning.- 9.5 Network adjustment.- 9.5.1 Single baseline solution.- 9.5.2 Multipoint solution.- 9.5.3 Single baseline versus multipoint solution.- 9.5.4 Least squares adjustment of baselines.- 9.6 Dilution of precision.- 9.7 Accuracy measures.- 9.7.1 Introduction.- 9.7.2 Chi-squ
This edition accommodates the most recent advances in GPS technology. Updated or new information has been included although the overall structure essentially conforms to the former editions. The textbook explains in comprehensive manner the concepts of GPS as well as the latest applications in surveying and navigation. Description of project planning, observation, and data processing is provided for novice GPS users. Special emphasis is put on the modernization of GPS covering the new signal structure and improvements in the space and the control segment. Furthermore, the augmentation of GPS by satellite-based and ground-based systems leading to future Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) is discussed.