Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products 81
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Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products 81

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81, Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
New Results on the Chemistry of Lichen Substances.- Abbreviations.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Methods for Identification and Structure Elucidation of Lichen Substances.- 2.1. Spot Tests.- 2.2. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC).- 2.3. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).- 2.4. Droplet Counter-Current Chromatography.- 2.5. NMR Spectroscopy.- 2.6. Mass Spectrometry.- 2.7. X-ray Analysis.- 2.8. Cathodoluminescence and X-ray Microanalysis.- 2.9. Laser Microprobe Mass Spectrometry (LAMMA).- 2.10. Fluorescence Microscopy.- 2.11. Computer Program for Identification of Lichen Substances(WINTABOLITES).- 3. General Methods for Derivatization and Regeneration of Lichen Substances.- 3.1. Carboxyl Groups.- 3.1.1. Methylation.- 3.1.2. Benzylation and Debenzylation.- 3.1.3. Carboxylation and Decarboxylation.- 3.2. Alcoholic and Phenolic Groups.- 3.2.1. Acetylation.- 3.2.2. Methylation and Demethylation.- 3.2.3. Isopropylation and Deisopropylation.- 3.2.4. Benzylation and Debenzylation.- 3.2.5. Oxidation of Alcohols.- 3.3. Substitution at Aromatic Rings.- 3.3.1. Halogenation and Dehalogenation.- 3.3.2. Hydroxylation.- 3.4. Synthesis of Aldehydes.- 3.4.1. Reduction of Aldehydes.- 3.4.2. Oxidation of Aldehydes.- 3.5. Cleavage and Formation of the Depside Ester Bond.- 4. Structure Elucidation and Synthesis of Lichen Substances.- 4.1. Nitrogen Containing Compounds.- 4.2. Phosphorus Containing Compounds.- 4.3. Polyols, Mono- and Polysaccharides and Carbohydrates.- 4.4. Aliphatic and Cycloaliphatic Compounds.- 4.4.1. Hydrocarbons.- 4.4.2. Aliphatic Alcohols.- 4.4.3. Aliphatic Acids and Esters.- 4.4.4. Aliphatic Tricarboxylic Acids.- 4.4.5. ?-Lactonic Acids.- 4.4.6. Macrocyclic Lactones and Bis-Lactones.- Aspicilin.- Lepranthin.- 4.4.7. Anhydrides.- 4.5. Aromatic Compounds.- 4.5.1. Aromatic Units.- 4.5.2. Biphenyls.- 4.5.3. Terphenyls.- 4.5.4. Diphenylmethanes.- 4.5.5. Diphenyl Ethers (Pseudodepsidones).- 4.5.6. Depsides.- 4.5.7. Depsidones.- 4.5.8. Depsones.- 4.5.9. Chromanes and Chromones.- 4.5.10. Xanthones.- 4.5.11. Benzofurans.- 4.5.12. Dibenzofurans.- 4.5.13. Usnic Acid and Related Compounds.- 4.5.14. Naphthopyrans.- 4.5.15. Quinones.- Benzofuranoquinones and Benzoquinones.- Naphthaquinones and bis-Naphthaquinones.- Anthraquinones.- Phenanthroquinones.- Phenanthroperylenequinones.- Perylenequinones.- 4.5.16. Pulvinic Acid Derivatives.- 4.6. Terpenoids.- 4.6.1. Monoterpenoids.- 4.6.2. Sesquiterpenoids.- 4.6.3. Diterpenoids.- 4.6.4. Sesterterpenoids.- 4.6.5. Triterpenoids.- 4.6.6. Steroids.- 4.6.7. Carotenoids.- 5. Culture and Chemistry of Lichen Symbionts and Cell Culture of Lichens.- 5.1. Culture of Mycobionts.- 5.2. Lichen Tissue Cultures and their Metabolites.- 5.3. Culture of Lichen Phycobionts.- 5.4. Metabolites from Lichen Phycobionts.- 6. Biosynthesis of Lichen Substances.- 7. Chemotaxonomy of Lichens.- 8. Biological Activities of Lichen Substances and Lichens.- 8.1. Activity against Microorganisms.- 8.1.1. Antiviral Activity.- 8.1.2. Activity Against Bacteria and Fungi.- 8.2. Activity Against Algae.- 8.3. Activity on Bryophytes.- 8.4. Activity on Higher Plants.- 8.5. Activity on Animals.- 8.6. Activity on Man.- 8.7. Tumour and Anti-Tumour Activity.- 8.8. Inhibition of Enzymes.- 8.9. Antioxydant Activity.- 9. Harmful Effects of Lichens.- 10. Commercial Uses of Lichens and Lichen Substances.- 10.1. Uses in Perfume Production and in Cosmetics.- 10.2. Lichens as Biomonitors.- 10.3. Lichens for Dyeing.- Acknowledgement.- Notes Added in Proof.- References.- Author Index.
The volumes of this classic series, now referred to simply as "Zechmeister" after its founder, L. Zechmeister, have appeared under the Springer Imprint ever since the series' inauguration in 1938. The volumes contain contributions on various topics related to the origin, distribution, chemistry, synthesis, biochemistry, function or use of various classes of naturally occurring substances ranging from small molecules to biopolymers. Each contribution is written by a recognized authority in his field and provides a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the topic in question. Addressed to biologists, technologists, and chemists alike, the series can be used by the expert as a source of information and literature citations and by the non-expert as a means of orientation in a rapidly developing discipline.