The Orexin/Hypocretin System
-12 %

The Orexin/Hypocretin System

Physiology and Pathophysiology
 Previously published in hardcover
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Previously published in hardcover
Seiji Nishino
862 g
254x178x25 mm

First and Highly-Anticipated Reference for the Orexin/Hypocretin System!
Part I. HistoryHistory and Overview of Orexin/Hypocretin Research: From Orphan GPCR to Integrative Physiology
Michihiro Mieda and Takeshi Sakurai
Part II. Overview of the Orexin/Hypocretin Neuronal System
Orexin and Orexin Receptors
Takeshi Sakurai
Orexin Projections and Localization of Orexin Receptors
Jacob N. Marcus and Joel K. Elmquist
Neuronal Responses to Hypocretin/Orexin
Anthony N. van den Pol and Claudio Acuna-Goycolea
Afferent System of Orexin Neurons
Akihiro Yamanaka
Part III. Assessment of Orexin/Hypocretin Functions in Tissue and Biological Fluids
Hypocretin Measurements in the CSF, and Blood and Brain Tissue: Basic and Clinical Applications
Seiji Nishino
Hypocretin Receptor-Activated G Proteins Revealed by [35S]GTPgS Autoradiography
René Bernard, Ralph Lydic, and Helen A. Baghdoyan
Part IV. Physiology
A. Orexin/Hypocretin System and Hypothalamic Function
Orexin System and Feeding Behavior
Takeshi Sakurai
Orexins and the Autonomic Nervous System
Tetsuro Shirasaka and Masamitsu Nakazato
Neuroendocrine Role of the Orexins (Hypocretins)
Shahrad Taheri
The Orexin/Hypocretin System and Stress and Emotion
Yoichi Ueta and Hiroaki Fujihara
B. Orexins/Hypocretins and Sleep Regulation
Hypocretin as a Wakefulness Regulatory Peptide
Luis de Lecea and J. Gregor Sutcliffe
Hypocretin/Orexin Tonus and Vigilance Control
Yasushi Yoshida and Seiji Nishino
Hypocretin System and Aminergic and Cholinergic Systems in the Control of Vigilance
Krister S. Eriksson and Helmut L. Haas
Orexin and Hypothalamic Control of Sleep and Waking
Rodrigo A. España and Thomas E. Scammell
Hypocretin/Orexin and Motor Function
Jerome M. Siegel
Part V. Pathophysiology:Narcolepsy and Orexin/Hypocretin Deficiency
A. Orexin/Hypocretin Deficiency and Narcolepsy
Overview of Human Narcolepsy
Scott Fromherz and Emmanuel Mignot
Canine Models of Narcolepsy
Seiji Nishino
Rodent Models of Human Narcolepsy-Cataplexy
Michihiro Mieda and Masashi Yanagisawa
B. Orexin/Hypocretin Deficiency in Human Narcolepsy and Other Conditions
Hypocretin Deficiency in Human Narcolepsy: Mutation Screening, Neuropathology, and CSF Hypocretin-1 Level
Patrice Bourgin, Jamie M. Zeitzer, and Emmanuel Mignot
Hypocretin Status in Neurological Disorders in Relation to Excessive Sleepiness and Cataplexy
Takashi Kanbayashi, Junko Arii, Hideaki Kondo, Tetsuo Shimizu, and Seiji Nishino
Hypocretin Measures in Psychiatric Disorders
Ronald M. Salomon
Neuroendocrinology of Human Narcolepsy
Gert Jan Lammers, Sebastiaan Overeem, and Hanno Pijl
Narcolepsy and Autoimmunity
Shahrad Taheri, Jose Paterno, Ling Lin, and Emmauel Mignot
C. Treatment/Pharmacology
Pharmacology of Orexin/Hypocretin Peptides and Small Molecules
Stephen J. Perry, David A. Schwarz, and Richard A. Maki
Rescue of Narcoleptic Orexin Neuron-Ablated Mice by Ectopic Overexpression of Orexin Peptides
Michihiro Mieda, Jon T. Willie, and Takeshi Sakurai
Hypocretin/Orexin Replacement Therapy in Hypocretin/Orexin-Deficient Narcolepsy: An Overview
Nobuhiro Fujiki and Seiji Nishino
Orexin/hypocretin research began in 1998, as a result of the discovery of a new hypothalamic neuropeptide. In 1999, it was found that mutations in the orexin/ hypocretin-related genes caused a sleep disorder (narcolepsy) in dogs and mice. These findings were soon followed by the discoveries of orexin/hypocretin ligand deficiency in human narcolepsy. The finding of the major pathophysiological mechanisms of human narcolepsy resulted in its reclassification as a neurological, not a psychiatric, disorder. The - portance of early diagnosis and initiation of treatment for human narcolepsy has been repeatedly emphasized because the disease typically starts around puberty (when social and school influences become important). Orexin/hypocretin de- ciency in narcolepsy subjects can be detected clinically in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) orexin/hypocretin measures (low CSF orexin/hypocretin levels are strongly asso- ated with narcolepsy cataplexy among various neurologic and sleep disorders). Thus, the CSF orexin/hypocretin measurements are expected to be included as a diagnostic test for narcolepsy cataplexy in the second revision of international di- nostic criteria (ICSD). This positive diagnostic test is very useful for establishing an early diagnosis for narcolepsy cataplexy, and many patients will likely receive im- diate benefits. Cerebrospinal orexin/hypocretin measurements are also informative for the nosological classification of hypersomnia. Because orexin/hypocretin de- ciency is observed in most human narcolepsy cataplexy, orexin/hypocretin repla- ment therapy is now a promising new choice for the treatment of human narcolepsy, and research in this area is actively in progress.