Computing PROSODY
-12 %

Computing PROSODY

Computational Models for Processing Spontaneous Speech
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Nick Campbell
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Preface.- Contributors.- I The Prosody of Spontaneous Speech.- 1 Introduction to Part I.- 1.1 Naturalness and Spontaneous Speech.- References.- 2 A Typology of Spontaneous Speech.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Some Prosodic Phenomena.- 2.3 Types of Spontaneous Speech Recordings.- References.- 3 Prosody, Models, and Spontaneous Speech.- 3.1 What is Prosody? Its Nature and Function.- 3.2 Prosody in the Production of Spontaneous Speech.- 3.3 Role of Generative Models.- 3.4 A Generative Model for the F0 Contour of an Utterance of Japanese.- 3.5 Units of Prosody of the Spoken Japanese.- 3.6 Prosody of Spontaneous Speech.- References.- 4 On the Analysis of Prosody in Interaction.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Background Work.- 4.3 Goal and Methodology.- 4.4 Prosody in Language Technology.- 4.5 Analysis of Discourse and Dialogue Structure.- 4.6 Prosodic Analysis.- 4.6.1 Auditory Analysis.- 4.6.2 The Intonation Model.- 4.6.3 Acoustic-phonetic Analysis.- 4.7 Speech Synthesis.- 4.7.1 Model-based Resynthesis.- 4.7.2 Text-to-speech.- 4.8 Tentative Findings.- 4.9 Final Remarks.- References.- II Prosody and the Structure of the Message.- 5 Introduction to Part II.- 5.1 Prosody and the Structure of the Message.- References.- 6 Integrating Prosodic and Discourse Modelling.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Modelling Attentional State.- 6.3 Accent and Attentional Modelling.- 6.3.1 Principles.- 6.3.2 Algorithms.- 6.4 Related Work.- References.- 7 Prosodic Features of Utterances in Task-Oriented Dialogues.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Speech Data Collection.- 7.3 Framework for Analysis.- 7.4 Topic Structure and Utterance Pattern.- 7.4.1 Topic Shifting and Utterance Relation.- 7.4.2 Dialogue Structure and Pitch Contour.- 7.4.3 Topic Shifting and Utterance Pattern.- 7.4.4 Topic Shifting and Utterance Duration.- 7.5 Summary and Application.- 7.5.1 Summary of Results.- 7.5.2 Prosodic Parameter Generation.- References.- 8 Variation of Accent Prominence within the Phrase: Models and Spontaneous Speech Data.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 F0 and Variation of Accent Prominence.- 8.2.1 Intrinsic Prominence of Single Accents.- 8.2.2 Relative Prominence of Successive Accents.- 8.2.3 Discussion.- 8.3 Variation of Accent Prominence in Spontaneous Speech..- 8.3.1 Introduction.- 8.3.2 Method.- 8.3.3 Data Analysis.- 8.3.4 Results and Discussion.- 8.3.5 Limitations.- References.- 9 Predicting the Intonation of Discourse Segments from Examples in Dialogue Speech.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Modelling Discourse Intonation.- 9.3 Analysis with ToBI Labels.- 9.4 Analysis with Tilt Labels.- 9.5 Discussion.- 9.6 Summary.- References.- 10 Effects of Focus on Duration and Vowel Formant Frequency in Japanese.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.1.1The Aim of the Study.- 10.1.2Accent and Focus in Japanese.- 10.2 Experimental Setting.- 10.3 Results of Acoustic Analysis.- 10.3.1 F0 Peaks.- 10.3.2Utterance Duration.- 10.3.3 Formant Frequencies.- 10.3.4 Target Vowels.- 10.3.5 Context Vowels.- 10.4 Discussion.- 10.4.1 Duration.- 10.4.2 Target Vowels.- 10.4.3 Context Vowels.- References.- III Prosody in Speech Synthesis.- 11 Introduction to Part III.- 11.1 No Future for Comprehensive Models of Intonation?.- 11.2 Learning from Examples.- 11.2.1 The Reference Corpus.- 11.2 2 Labelling the Corpus.- 11.2 3 The Sub-Symbolic Paradigm: Training an Associator.- 11.2.4 The Morphological Paradigm.- References.- 12 Synthesizing Spontaneous Speech.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.1.1 Synthesizing Speech.- 12.1.2 Natural Speech.- 12.2Spontaneous Speech.- 12.2.1 Spectral Correlates of Prosodie Variation.- 12.3 Labelling Speech.- 12.3.1 Automated Segmental Labelling.- 12.3.2 Automating Prosodie Labelling.- 12.3.3 Labelling Interactive Speech.- 12.4 Synthesis in CHATR.- 12.5 Summary.- References.- 13 Modelling Prosody in Spontaneous Speech.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 A Prosodie Phonology of German: The Kiel Intonation Model (KIM).- 13.2.1 The Categories of the Model and its General Structure.- 13.2.2 Lexical and Sentence Stress.- 13.2.3 Intonation.
This book presents a collection of papers from the Spring 1995 Work shop on Computational Approaches to Processing the Prosody of Spon taneous Speech, hosted by the ATR Interpreting Telecommunications Re search Laboratories in Kyoto, Japan. The workshop brought together lead ing researchers in the fields of speech and signal processing, electrical en gineering, psychology, and linguistics, to discuss aspects of spontaneous speech prosody and to suggest approaches to its computational analysis and modelling. The book is divided into four sections. Part I gives an overview and theoretical background to the nature of spontaneous speech, differentiating it from the lab-speech that has been the focus of so many earlier analyses. Part II focuses on the prosodic features of discourse and the structure of the spoken message, Part ilIon the generation and modelling of prosody for computer speech synthesis. Part IV discusses how prosodic information can be used in the context of automatic speech recognition. Each section of the book starts with an invited overview paper to situate the chapters in the context of current research. We feel that this collection of papers offers interesting insights into the scope and nature of the problems concerned with the computational analysis and modelling of real spontaneous speech, and expect that these works will not only form the basis of further developments in each field but also merge to form an integrated computational model of prosody for a better understanding of human processing of the complex interactions of the speech chain.