Phaeocystis, major link in the biogeochemical cycling of climate-relevant elements
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Phaeocystis, major link in the biogeochemical cycling of climate-relevant elements

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"This volume offers a selection of papers that have been presented at the final meeting of Working Group # 120 "Phaeocystis, major link in the biogeochemical cycling of climate-relevant elements", of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR). The combination of a diverse yet well selected spectrum of scientific disciplines - varying from phylogeny to microbiogeochemistry and ecological modeling - makes this a very complete volume; it will no doubt become an important reference to all those working with Phaeocystis. This book comprises important review papers by various top authors in the field. Topics that are addressed reach from the organism level (taxonomy and life cycles) to ecosystem dynamics (interaction with viruses and grazing dynamics). The role of Phaeocystis in carbon cycling is focus of various chapters, as well as its role in sulphur cycling. The last treatise of this volume comprises a synthesis of all the presentations of the meeting. This chapter highlights the most relevant insights that have been gained so far and defines urgent questions that need to be addressed in future research."
A taxonomic review of the genus Phaeocystis.- Methods used to reveal genetic diversity in the colony-forming prymnesiophytes Phaeocystis antarctica, P. globosa and P. pouchetii-preliminary results.- The life cycle of Phaeocystis: state of knowledge and presumptive role in ecology.- Phaeocystis colony distribution in the North Atlantic Ocean since 1948, and interpretation of long-term changes in the Phaeocystis hotspot in the North Sea.- Photosynthetic responses in Phaeocystis antarctica towards varying light and iron conditions.- Effects of iron concentration on pigment composition in Phaeocystis antarctica grown at low irradiance.- Evidence for high iron requirements of colonial Phaeocystis antarctica at low irradiance.- The carbohydrates of Phaeocystis and their degradation in the microbial food web.- The role of iron in the bacterial degradation of organic matter derived from Phaeocystis antarctica.- The colonization of two Phaeocystis species (Prymnesiophyceae) by pennate diatoms and other protists: a significant contribution to colony biomass.- Zooplankton grazing on Phaeocystis: a quantitative review and future challenges.- The influence of Phaeocystis globosa on microscale spatial patterns of chlorophyll a and bulk-phase seawater viscosity.- Haemolytic activity of live Phaeocystis pouchetii during mesocosm blooms.- Phaeocystis and its interaction with viruses.- Does Phaeocystis spp. contribute significantly to vertical export of organic carbon?.- Vernal sedimentation trends in north Norwegian fjords: temporary anomaly in 234Th particulate fluxes related to Phaeocystis pouchetii proliferation.- Environmental constraints on the production and removal of the climatically active gas dimethylsulphide (DMS) and implications for ecosystem modelling.- Variability in abundance and fluxes of dimethyl sulphide in the Indian Ocean.- Gaining integrated understanding of Phaeocystis spp. (Prymnesiophyceae) through model-driven laboratory and mesocosm studies.- Current understanding of Phaeocystis ecology and biogeochemistry, and perspectives for future research.
contains the two accessory pigments 19¢-he- noyloxyfucoxanthin (Hex) and fucoxanthin Phaeocystis antarctica is an important phyto- (Fuco), although diatoms, also common in the plankton species in the Southern Ocean, although Southern Ocean, are also known to contain Fuco. the relative contribution of Phaeocystis to total The presence of Hex in signi?cant concentrations autotrophic biomass and primary production in relative toother photosynthetic pigments has been this vast oceanic region is poorly constrained, for used to identify P. antarctica blooms in Antarctic a number of reasons. First, P. antarctica has a waters (e. g. , DiTullio and Smith 1995; Crocker complex heteromorphic life cycle, alternating et al. 1995), and a strong correlation has been between gelatinous colonies and free-living ?a- observed between Hex concentrations and gellate cells, which hampers identi?cation using P. antarctica cell number estimated by microscopy simple microscopy (Rousseau et al. 1994). S- in the southern Ross Sea (DiTullio et al. 2003b), ond, blooms of P. antarctica display pronounced which is dominated by P. antarctica blooms during temporal and spatial variability, especially near the austral spring (NovemberDecember; the Antarctic continental margins (El-Sayed et al. El-Sayed et al. 1983; Arrigo et al. 1998; Smith 1983; Palmisano et al. 1986). And ?nally, although et al. 2003). numerous studies have focused on this species in Previous laboratory culture experiments have near-surface waters, P.