Chemesthesis: Chemical Touch in Food and Eating
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Chemesthesis: Chemical Touch in Food and Eating

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ISBN-13:
9781118951736
Einband:
Buch
Erscheinungsdatum:
18.03.2016
Seiten:
312
Autor:
Shane T. Mcdonald
Gewicht:
838 g
Format:
244x170x32 mm
Sprache:
Englisch
Beschreibung:

List of contributors xi
Foreword xiii
Preface xvii
1 Introduction: what is chemesthesis? 1
Barry G. Green
1.1 A brief history 1
1.2 What is its relevance today? 3
References 5
2 Psychology of chemesthesis - why would anyone want to be in pain? 8
Pamela Dalton and Nadia Byrnes
2.1 Introduction and background 8
2.1.1 Individual variation in hedonic response 10
2.2 Physiological differences: maybe they can't feel the burn? 11
2.2.1 Genetics: variability in sensation and diet 11
2.2.2 Anatomy: oral phenotypes and sensation 12
2.3 Effects of exposure on chemesthetic response (social) 13
2.3.1 Desensitization 13
2.3.2 Affective shift: "learning to like" 15
2.4 Cognitive factors underlying chemesthetic response: state versus trait 17
2.4.1 Personality traits 18
2.4.2 New forms of sensation seeking scales 18
2.4.3 Personality and food choice 22
2.4.4 Cognitive factors underlying chemesthetic response: states 24
2.5 Benefits of liking 25
2.6 Summary 25
References 25
3 Spice and herb extracts with chemesthetic effects 32
Howard Haley and Shane T. McDonald
3.1 Why plants have chemesthetic properties 32
3.2 Hot pungent spices: capsicum species 33
3.3 Other hot pungent spices 34
3.3.1 Cinnamon and cassia 34
3.3.2 Black and white pepper 35
3.3.3 Ginger 353.4 Nasal heat spices 36
3.4.1 Mustard 36
3.4.2 Horseradish 36
3.4.3 Wasabi 37
3.5 Cooling spices 37
3.5.1 Mint 37
3.5.2 Eucalyptus 38
3.6 Numbing spices 38
3.6.1 Cloves 38
3.6.2 Wintergreen 39
3.7 Tingling spices 39
3.7.1 Jambu 39
3.7.2 Szechuan pepper 39
3.8 Spice and herb extracts 40
3.8.1 Extracts 40
3.9 Regulatory control of spices and herb extracts with chemesthetic properties 43
3.10 Advantages of spices, essential oils, and oleoresins 44
References 45
4 Molecular mechanisms underlying the role of TRP channels in chemesthesis 48
Yeranddy A. Alpizar, Thomas Voets, and Karel Talavera
4.1 Introduction 48
4.2 TRPM8 49
4.2.1 Mathematical models of TRPM8 function: heated debate over a cool channel 50
4.2.2 Structural determinants of activation of TRPM8 by menthol 57
4.3 TRPV1 61
4.3.1 Cross-sensitization between TRPV1 agonists 64
4.4 TRPA1 65
4.5 Concluding remarks 70
Acknowledgments 71
References 71
5 Anatomy and physiology of chemesthesis 77
Cecil J. Saunders and Wayne L. Silver
5.1 Introduction 77
5.2 Anatomy 77
5.2.1 Oral cavity 78
5.2.2 Nasal cavity 79
5.2.3 Solitary chemosensory cells 80
5.2.4 Other chemosensory epithelial cells 82
5.3 Physiology 83
5.3.1 Reflexes 83
5.3.2 Neurophysiology of chemesthesis 83
5.4 Summary 87
References 87
6 Types of chemesthesis I. Pungency and burn: historical perspectives, word usage, and temporal characteristics 92
John E. Hayes
6.1 Introduction 92
6.1.1 Müller, Myers, and the doctrine of specific nerve energies 92
6.1.2 Columbian Exchange and the quest for spices 93
6.2 Language usage 94
6.3 Differentiation from classical tastes 96
6.4 Sensitization 97
6.5 Acute psychophysical desensitization 98
6.6 Chronic psychophysical desensitization 101
6.7 Summary 102
References 103
7 Types of chemesthesis II: Cooling 106
Steven Pringle
7.1 Consumers and oral perception: where chemesthesis contributes to flavor 106
7.1.1 Taste perception 106
7.2 Molecular structure and physiological cooling 109
7.2.1 Menthol derivatives 110
7.2.2 Non-menthol derived coolants 120
7.3 Physiological cooling outside of the oral cavity 123
7.4 Usage and consumer perception 126
7.4.1 Physiological coolants in applications beyond cooling 127
7.4.2 Physiological cooling and flavor enhancement 128
7.5 Cooling compounds - the next steps 130
References 131
8 Types of chemesthesis III. Tingling and numbing 134
Christopher T. Simons
8.1 Introduction 134
8.1.1 Historical use of tingling and numbing compounds 134
8.2 Tingle mechanisms 136
8.2.1 Two-pore K+ channels 136
8.2.2 Carbonic anhydrase/TRPA1 136
8.3 Numbing (anaesthetic) mechanisms 138
8.3.1 Alkylamides and two-pore K+ channe
Chemesthesis are the chemically initiated sensations that occur via the touch system. Examples in the mouth include the burn of capsaicinoids in chilies, the cooling of menthol in peppermint, and the tingle of carbonation. It is physiologically distinct from taste and smell, but is increasingly understood to be just as important as these senses for their contribution to flavor, especially with the sustained growth in interest in spicy foods from around the world.Chemesthesis: Chemical Touch in Food and Eating surveys the modern body of work on chemesthesis, with a variety of contributors who are well known for their expertise on the topic. After a forward by John Prescott and an introduction by Barry Green (who originally coined the term chemesthesis 25 years ago), the book moves on to survey chemesthetic spices and address the psychology and physiology of chemesthesis; practical sensory and instrumental analysis; the interaction of chemesthesis with other chemical senses; health ramifications; and the application of chemesthesis in food. The major types of chemesthesis, including pungency/burning, cooling, tingling, nasal irritation, and numbing, are each covered in their own chapter. The book concludes with a look to the future.
This is the first comprehensive book on chemesthesis since 1990, when Barry Green and his colleagues edited a volume on the perception of chemical irritants, including those in food. This new book is intended to be a vital resource for anyone interested in the sensory impact of the food we eat, including food scientists, sensory professionals, analytical chemists, physiologists, culinary scientists, and others.