Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide-Based Thin-Film Solar Cells
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Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide-Based Thin-Film Solar Cells

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ISBN-13:
9781118437872
Einband:
Buch
Erscheinungsdatum:
23.02.2015
Seiten:
440
Autor:
Kentaro Ito
Gewicht:
839 g
Format:
246x173x28 mm
Sprache:
Englisch
Beschreibung:

Preface ix
List of Contributors xi
Part I Introduction 1
1 An Overview of CZTS-Based Thin-Film Solar Cells 3
Kentaro Ito
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 The Photovoltaic Effect 4
1.3 In Pursuit of an Optimal Semiconductor for Photovoltaics 22
1.4 Conclusions 36
Acknowledgements 37
References 37
2 Market Challenges for CZTS-Based Thin-Film Solar Cells 43
Arnulf Jäger-Waldau
2.1 Introduction 43
2.2 Compound Thin-Film Technologies and Manufacturing 45
2.3 Challenges for CZTS Solar Cells in the Market 49
2.4 Conclusion 51
References 51
Part II The Physics and Chemistry of Quaternary Chalcogenide Semiconductors 53
3 Crystallographic Aspects of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) 55
Susan Schorr
3.1 Introduction: What Defines a Crystal Structure? 55
3.2 The Crystal Structure of CZTS 57
3.3 Point Defects in CZTS and the Role of Stoichiometry 68
3.4 Differentiation between Intergrown Kesterite- and Stannite-Type Phases: A Simulational Approach 71
3.5 Summary 72
References 73
4 Electronic Structure and Optical Properties from First-Principles Modeling 75
Clas Persson, Rongzhen Chen, Hanyue Zhao, Mukesh Kumar and Dan Huang
4.1 Introduction 75
4.2 Computational Background 77
4.3 Crystal Structure 80
4.4 Electronic Structure 82
4.5 Optical Properties 97
4.6 Summary 101
Acknowledgements 102
References 102
5 Kesterites: Equilibria and Secondary Phase Identification 107
Dominik M. Berg and Phillip J. Dale
5.1 Introduction 107
5.2 Chemistry of the Kesterite Reaction 108
5.3 Phase Identification 116
Acknowledgements 128
References 128
6 Growth of CZTS Single Crystals 133
Akira Nagaoka and Kenji Yoshino
6.1 Introduction 133
6.2 Growth Process 134
6.3 Properties of CZTS Single Crystals 141
6.4 Conclusion 145
Acknowledgements 146
References 146
7 Physical Properties: Compiled Experimental Data 149
Sadao Adachi
7.1 Introduction 149
7.2 Structural Properties 150
7.3 Thermal Properties 152
7.4 Mechanical and Lattice Dynamic Properties 157
7.5 Electronic Energy-Band Structure 162
7.6 Optical Properties 169
7.7 Carrier Transport Properties 170
References 176
Part III Synthesis of Thin Films and Their Application to Solar Cells 181
8 Sulfurization of Physical Vapor-Deposited Precursor Layers 183
Hironori Katagiri
8.1 Introduction 183
8.2 First CZTS Thin-Film Solar Cells 184
8.3 ZnS as Zn-Source in Precursor 184
8.4 Influence of Absorber Thickness 187
8.5 New Sulfurization System 188
8.6 Influence of Morphology 189
8.7 Co-Sputtering System with Annealing Chamber 190
8.8 Active Composition 191
8.9 CZTS Compound Target 192
8.10 Conclusions 201
References 201
9 Reactive Sputtering of CZTS 203
Charlotte Platzer-Björkman, Tove Ericson, Jonathan Scragg and Tomas Kubart
9.1 Introduction 203
9.2 The Reactive Sputtering Process 205
9.3 Properties of Sputtered Precursors 206
9.4 Annealing of Sputtered Precursors 214
9.5 Device Performance 215
9.6 Summary 217
References 217
10 Coevaporation of CZTS Films and Solar Cells 221
Thomas Unold, Justus Just and Hans-Werner Schock
10.1 Introduction 221
10.2 Basic Principles 221
10.3 Process Variations 227
Acknowledgements 236
References 236
11 Synthesis of CZTSSe Thin Films from Nanocrystal Inks 239
Charles J. Hages and Rakesh Agrawal
11.1 Introduction 239
11.2 Nanocrystal Synthesis 241
11.3 Nanocrystal Characterization 249
11.4 Sintering 251
11.5 Conclusion 264
References 264
12 CZTS Thin Films Prepared by a Non-Vacuum Process 271
Kunihiko Tanaka
12.1 Introduction 271
12.2 Sol-Gel Sulfurization Method 272
12.3 Preparation of CZTS Thin Films by Sol-Gel Sulfurization Method 274
12.4 Chemical Composition Dependence 279
12.5 H2S Concentration Dependence 282
12.6 CZTS Solar Cell Prepared by Non-vacuum Processes 284
References 285
13 Growth of CZTS-Based Monograins and Their Application to Membrane Solar Cells 289
Enn Mellikov, Mare Altosaar, Marit Kauk-Kuusik, Kristi Timmo, Dieter Meissner, Maarja Grossberg, Jüri Krustok and Olga Volobujeva
1
Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation.The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and toxicity issues. The device performance of CZTS-based thin film solar cells has been steadily improving over the past 20 years, and they have now reached near commercial efficiency levels (10%). These achievements prove that CZTS-based solar cells have the potential to be used for large-scale deployment of photovoltaics.
With contributions from leading researchers from academia and industry, many of these authors have contributed to the improvement of its efficiency, and have rich experience in preparing a variety of semiconducting thin films for solar cells.