Arc Flash Hazard
-18 %

Arc Flash Hazard

 HC gerader Rücken kaschiert
Besorgungstitel| Lieferzeit:3-5 Tage I

Unser bisheriger Preis:ORGPRICE: 149,20 €

Jetzt 122,32 €*

Alle Preise inkl. MwSt. | ggf. zzgl. Versand
ISBN-13:
9781118163818
Einband:
HC gerader Rücken kaschiert
Erscheinungsdatum:
28.09.2012
Seiten:
642
Autor:
Das
Gewicht:
1120 g
Format:
234x156x38 mm
Sprache:
Englisch
Beschreibung:
Up-to-date analysis methodologies and practical mitigation for a major electrical safety concern
Arc Flash Hazard Analysis and Mitigation is the first book to focus specifically on arc flash hazards and provide the latest methodologies for its analysis as well as practical mitigation techniques.
Foreword xix

Preface xxi

About the Author xxiii

1 ARC FLASH HAZARDS AND THEIR ANALYSES 1

1.1 Electrical Arcs 2

1.2 Arc Flash Hazard and Personal Safety 4

1.3 Time Motion Studies 5

1.4 Arc Flash Hazards 6

1.5 Arc Blast 6

1.6 Electrical Shock Hazard 9

1.7 Fire Hazard 14

1.8 Arc Flash Hazard Analysis 15

1.9 Personal Protective Equipment 23

1.10 Hazard Boundaries 24

1.11 Maximum Duration of an Arc Flash Event and Arc Flash Boundary 26

1.12 Reasons for Internal Arcing Faults 29

1.13 Arc Flash Hazard Calculation Steps 30

1.14 Examples of Calculations 32

1.15 Reducing Arc Flash Hazard 36

2 SAFETY AND PREVENTION THROUGH DESIGN: A NEW FRONTIER 40

2.1 Electrical Standards and Codes 41

2.2 Prevention through Design 43

2.3 Limitations of Existing Codes, Regulations, and Standards 44

2.4 Electrical Hazards 45

2.5 Changing the Safety Culture 48

2.6 Risk Analysis for Critical Operation Power Systems 48

2.7 Reliability Analysis 50

2.8 Maintenance and Operation 53

2.9 Safety Integrity Level and Safety Instrumented System 55

3 CRITIQUE OF IEEE GUIDE 1584 ARC FLASH CALCULATIONS 60

3.1 Variations of Arcing Currents 60

3.2 Gap between Electrodes 62

3.3 Variations of Incident Energy 64

3.4 Some Anomalies in IEEE Equations 64

3.5 Lee's Arc Model 66

3.6 IEEE Experimental Model Setup 68

3.7 Electrical Arc Burn Hazard 70

3.8 Effect of Insulating Barriers 72

3.9 Arc Flash Test Models 76

3.10 Alternate Equations 77

3.11 Further Testing and Research 78

3.12 Effectiveness of PPE Calculated Based on IEEE 1584 Guide 79

4 ARC FLASH HAZARD AND SYSTEM GROUNDING 82

4.1 System and Equipment Grounding 82

4.2 Low Resistance Grounding 87

4.3 High Resistance Grounded Systems 87

4.4 Ungrounded Systems 94

4.5 Reactance Grounding 95

4.6 Resonant Grounding 95

4.7 Corner of Delta-Grounded Systems 95

4.8 Surge Arresters 96

4.9 Artifi cially Derived Neutrals 97

4.10 Multiple Grounded Systems 100

4.11 Arc Flash Hazard in Solidly Grounded Systems 100

4.12 Protection and Coordination in Solidly Grounded Systems 105

4.13 Ground Fault Coordination in Low Resistance Grounded Medium Voltage Systems 114

4.14 Monitoring of Grounding Resistors 123

4.15 Selection of Grounding Systems 124

5 SHORT-CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS ACCORDING TO ANSI/IEEE STANDARDS FOR ARC FLASH ANALYSIS 128

5.1 Types of Calculations 129

5.2 Rating Structure of HV Circuit Breakers 130

5.3 Low-Voltage Motors 133

5.4 Rotating Machine Model 134

5.5 Calculation Methods 134

5.6 Network Reduction 138

5.7 Calculation Procedure 138

5.8 Capacitor and Static Converter Contributions to Short-Circuit Currents 141

5.9 Typical Computer-Based Calculation Results 141

5.10 Examples of Calculations 144

5.11 Thirty-Cycle Short-Circuit Currents 159

5.12 Unsymmetrical Short-Circuit Currents 160

5.13 Computer Methods 169

6 ACCOUNTING FOR DECAYING SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS IN ARC FLASH CALCULATIONS 176

6.1 Short Circuit of a Passive Element 176

6.2 Systems with No AC Decay 179

6.3 Reactances of a Synchronous Machine 180

6.4 Saturation of Reactances 182

6.5 Time Constants of Synchronous Machines 182

6.6 Synchronous Machine Behavior on Terminal Short Circuit 183

6.7 Short Circuit of Synchronous Motors and Condensers 192

6.8 Short Circuit of Induction Motors 192

6.9 A New Algorithm for Arc Flash Calculations with Decaying Short-Circuit Currents 195

7 PROTECTIVE RELAYING 203

7.1 Protection and Coordination from Arc Flash Considerations 203

7.2 Classifi cation of Relay Types 207

7.3 Design Criteria of Protective Systems 207

7.4 Overcurrent Protection 209

7.5 Low Voltage Circuit Breakers 216

7.6 Short-Circuit Ratings of Low Voltage Circuit Breakers 228

7.7 Series-Connected Ratings 233

7.8 Fuses 234

7.9 Application of Fuses for Arc Flash Reduction 239

7.10 Conductor Protection 24
Up-to-date analysis methodologies and practical mitigation for a major electrical safety concern
Arc Flash Hazard Analysis and Mitigation is the first book to focus specifically on arc flash hazards and provide the latest methodologies for its analysis as well as practical mitigation techniques.

Consisting of sixteen chapters, this fully up-to-date handbook covers all aspects of arc flash hazard calculations and mitigation. It addresses the calculations of short circuits, protective relaying, and varied electrical systems configurations in electrical power systems. It also examines protection systems, including differential relays, arc flash sensing relays, protective relaying coordination, current transformer operation and saturation, and applications to major electrical equipment from the arc flash point of view. Current technologies and strategies for arc flash mitigation are explored. Using the methodology, analysis, and preventive measures discussed in the book, the arc flash hazard incident energy can be reduced to 8 cal/cm2 or less for the new and existing electrical distribution systems.

This powerful resource:
Features the most up-to-date arc flash analysis methodologies
Presents arc flash hazard calculations in dc systems
Supplies practical examples and case studies
Provides end-of-chapter reviews and questions
Includes a Foreword written by Lanny Floyd, a world-renowned leader in electrical safety who is DuPont's Principal Consultant on Electrical Safety and Technology

Arc Flash Hazard Analysis and Mitigation is a must-have guide for electrical engineers engaged in design, operation, and maintenance, consulting engineers, facility managers, and safety professionals.