Heterogeneous Catalysis at Nanoscale and Energy Applications
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Heterogeneous Catalysis at Nanoscale and Energy Applications

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ISBN-13:
9780470952603
Einband:
Buch
Seiten:
344
Autor:
Feng Tao
Format:
243xx mm
Sprache:
Englisch
Beschreibung:
Contributors xiii

1 Introduction 1
Franklin (Feng) Tao, William F. Schneider, and Prashant V. Kamat

2 Chemical Synthesis of Nanoscale Heterogeneous Catalysts 9
Jianbo Wu and Hong Yang

2.1 Introduction 9

2.2 Brief Overview of Heterogeneous Catalysts 10

2.3 Chemical Synthetic Approaches 11

2.3.1 Colloidal Synthesis 11

2.3.2 Shape Control of Catalysts in Colloidal Synthesis 12

2.3.3 Control of Crystalline Phase of Intermetallic Nanostructures 14

2.3.4 Other Modes of Formation for Complex Nanostructures 17

2.4 Core-Shell Nanoparticles and Controls of Surface Compositions and Surface Atomic Arrangements 21

2.4.1 New Development on the Preparation of Colloidal Core-Shell Nanoparticles 21

2.4.2 Electrochemical Methods to Core-Shell Nanostructures 22

2.4.3 Control of Surface Composition via Surface Segregation 24

2.5 Summary 25

3 Physical Fabrication of Nanostructured Heterogeneous Catalysts 31
Chunrong Yin, Eric C. Tyo, and Stefan Vajda

3.1 Introduction 31

3.2 Cluster Sources 34

3.2.1 T hermal Vaporization Source 34

3.2.2 Laser Ablation Source 36

3.2.3 Magnetron Cluster Source 37

3.2.4 Arc Cluster Ion Source 38

3.3 Mass Analyzers 39

3.3.1 Neutral Cluster Beams 40

3.3.2 Quadrupole Mass Analyzer 41

3.3.3 Lateral TOF Mass Filter 42

3.3.4 Magnetic Sector Mass Selector 43

3.3.5 Quadrupole Deflector (Bender) 44

3.4 Survey of Cluster Deposition Apparatuses in Catalysis Studies 44

3.4.1 Laser Ablation Source with a Quadrupole Mass Analyzer at Argonne National Lab 44

3.4.2 ACIS with a Quadrupole Deflector at the Universität Rostock 46

3.4.3 Magnetron Cluster Source with a Lateral TOF Mass Filter at the University of Birmingham 47

3.4.4 Laser Ablation Cluster Source with a Quadrupole Mass Selector at the Technische Universität München 48

3.4.5 Laser Ablation Cluster Source with a Quadrupole Mass Analyzer at the University of Utah 49

3.4.6 Laser Ablation Cluster Source with a Magnetic Sector Mass Selector at the University of California, Santa Barbara 49

3.4.7 Magnetron Cluster Source with a Quadrupole Mass Filter at the Toyota Technological Institute 51

3.4.8 PACIS with a Magnetic Sector Mass Selector at Universität Konstanz 52

3.4.9 Magnetron Cluster Source with a Magnetic Sector at Johns Hopkins University 53

3.4.10 Magnetron Cluster Source with a Magnetic Sector at HZB 53

3.4.11 Magnetron Sputtering Source with a Quadrupole Mass Filter at the Technical University of Denmark 54

3.4.12 CORDIS with a Quadrupole Mass Filter at the Lausanne Group 56

3.4.13 Electron Impact Source with a Quadrupole Mass Selector at the Universität Karlsruhe 56

3.4.14 CORDIS with a Quadrupole Mass Analyzer at the Universität Ulm 58

3.4.15 Magnetron Cluster Source with a Lateral TOF Mass Filter at the Universität Dortmund 59

3.4.16 Z-Spray Source with a Quadrupole Mass Filter for Gas-Phase Investigations at FELIX 60

3.4.17 Laser Ablation Source with an Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer for Gas-Phase Investigations at the Technische Universität Berlin 61

4 Ex Situ Characterization 69
Minghua Qiao, Songhai Xie, Yan Pei, and Kangnian Fan

4.1 Introduction 69

4.2 Ex Situ Characterization Techniques 70

4.2.1 X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy 71

4.2.2 Electron Spectroscopy 72

4.2.3 Electron Microscopy 74

4.2.4 Scanning Probe Microscopy 75

4.2.5 Mössbauer Spectroscopy 76

4.3 Some Examples on Ex Situ Characterization of Nanocatalysts for Energy Applications 77

4.3.1 Illustrating Structural and Electronic Properties of Complex Nanocatalysts 77

4.3.2 Elucidating Structural Characteristics of Catalysts at the Nanometer or Atomic Level 81

4.3.3 Pinpointing the Nature of the Active Sites on Nanocatalysts 85

4.4 Conclusions 88

5 Applications of Soft X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy for In Situ Studies of Catalysts at Nanoscale 93
Xingyi Deng, Xiaoli Gu, and Franklin (Feng) Tao

5.1 Introduc
This book presents both the fundamentals concepts and latest achievements of a field that is growing in importance since it represents a possible solution for global energy problems. It focuses on an atomic-level understanding of heterogeneous catalysis involved in important energy conversion processes. It presents a concise picture for the entire area of heterogeneous catalysis with vision at the atomic- and nano- scales, from synthesis, ex-situ and in-situ characterization, catalytic activity and selectivity, to mechanistic understanding based on experimental exploration and theoretical simulation.
The book:
Addresses heterogeneous catalysis, one of the crucial technologies employed within the chemical and energy industries
Presents the recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of nanocatalysts as well as a mechanistic understanding of catalysis at atomic level for important processes of energy conversion
Provides a foundation for the potential design of revolutionarily new technical catalysts and thus the further development of efficient technologies for the global energy economy
Includes both theoretical studies and experimental exploration
Is useful as both a textbook for graduate and undergraduate students and a reference book for scientists and engineers in chemistry, materials science, and chemical engineering