Endocrine Disrupters
-15 %

Endocrine Disrupters

 HC gerader Rücken kaschiert
Besorgungstitel| Lieferzeit:3-5 Tage I

Unser bisheriger Preis:ORGPRICE: 133,80 €

Jetzt 113,52 €*

Alle Preise inkl. MwSt. | ggf. zzgl. Versand
ISBN-13:
9780470932094
Einband:
HC gerader Rücken kaschiert
Erscheinungsdatum:
15.03.2013
Seiten:
412
Autor:
Matthiessen
Gewicht:
783 g
Format:
234x156x26 mm
Sprache:
Englisch
Beschreibung:
Preface ixContributors xi
1 Ecotoxicity Test Methods for Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: An Introduction 1
Peter Matthiessen
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Regulatory Concerns 2
1.3 Invertebrates 2
1.4 Vertebrates 3
1.5 Testing Schemes for EDCs 5
Reference 6
2 Endocrine Disruption inWildlife: Background, Effects, and Implications 7
Dick Vethaak and Juliette Legler
2.1 Background to Endocrine Disruption 8
2.2 Effects of EDCs on Wildlife 19
2.3 Weight of Evidence and Ecological Significance of ED Effects 32
2.4 Implications for Effect Assessment and Toxicity Testing 36
2.5 Need for More Field Studies and an Integrated Approach 38
2.6 Concluding Points 39
References 40
3 The Regulatory Need for Tests to Detect EDCs and Assess Their Hazards toWildlife 59
Hans-Christian Stolzenberg, Tobias Frische, Vicki L. Dellarco, Gary Timm, Anne Gourmelon, Taisen Iguchi, Flemming Ingerslev, and Mike Roberts
3.1 Emerging Concerns and Policy Responses: Focusing on EDCs as a Large Pseudo-Uniform Group of Substances 60
3.2 General Approaches in Substance-Related Regulatory Frameworks (EU) 80
3.3 How to Make EDC Definitions Operational for Substance-Related Regulatory Work 87
3.4 Future Perspectives 91
3.5 Conclusions 92
References 93
4 Techniques for Measuring Endocrine Disruption in Insects 100
Lennart Weltje
4.1 Introduction 100
4.2 Methods 105
4.3 Discussion 108
4.4 Conclusion 1104.5 Acknowledgments 110
References 110
5 Crustaceans 116
Magnus Breitholtz
5.1 Introduction 116
5.2 Background to Crustacean Endocrinology 118
5.3 State of the Art: What Do We Know About Endocrine Disruption in Crustaceans? 121
5.4 Available Subchronic/Chronic Standard Test Protocols 128
5.5 Complementary Tools for Identification of Endocrine Disruption 129
5.6 Summary and Conclusions 132
References 134
6 Endocrine Disruption in Molluscs: Processes and Testing 143
Patricia D. McClellan-Green
6.1 Background and Introduction 143
6.2 What Constitutes the Endocrine System in Molluscs? 145
6.3 End Points and Biomarkers of Endocrine Disruption 154
6.4 Current Test Methods Using Molluscs 164
6.5 Proposed Test Methods 167
6.6 Conclusions 171
References 172
7 Using Fish to Detect Endocrine Disrupters and Assess Their Potential Environmental Hazards 185
Peter Matthiessen
7.1 Introduction 185
7.2 International Efforts to Standardize Fish-Based Methods for Screening and Testing Endocrine-Disrupting
7.3 Fish-Based Screens Developed by OECD for Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals 189
7.4 Progress with Developing Fish Partial Life Cycle Tests for Endocrine Disrupters 194
7.5 Prospects for the Standardization of Fish Full Life Cycle and Multigeneration Tests 195
7.6 Strengths and Weaknesses of a Hazard Evaluation Strategy Based Partly on Available and Proposed Fish Screens and Tests 197
7.7 Conclusions 198
References 198
8 Screening and Testing for Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in Amphibian Models 202
Daniel B. Pickford
8.1 Introduction 202
8.2 Potential Uses of Amphibians in Endocrine Disrupter Screening and Testing Programs 203
8.3 Embryonic Development 205
8.4 Hatching 208
8.5 Larval Development 209
8.6 Higher-Tier Tests with Amphibians 224
8.7 Other and Emerging Test Methods 227
8.8 Summary and Conclusions 229
References 232
9 Endocrine Disruption and Reptiles: Using the Unique Attributes of Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination to Assess Impacts 245
Satomi Kohno and Louis J. Guillette, Jr.
9.1 Introduction 245
9.2 Approaches to Examine Effects of EDCs 252
9.3 Induction of Sex Reversal In Ovo 255
9.4 Analysis of Sex-Reversed Animals 260
9.5 Conclusions 265
References 266
10 Birds 272
Paul D. Jones, Markus Hecker, Steve Wiseman, and John P. Giesy
10.1 Introduction 272
10.2 Differences Between Birds and Mammals and Among Bird Species 275
10.3 In Vitro Techniques 278
10.4 Studies with Embryos 280
10.5 In Vivo Techniques 280
10.6 Examples of EDC Effects from Field Studies 285
10.7 Proposed Two-Generation Test
This book describes methodology and applications for endocrine disrupter toxicity testing, an issue of considerable urgency, because of international regulatory authorities currently considering such testing schemes. The coverage examines major animal groups for sensitivity to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), identifying endpoints and procedures for testing guidelines. Three EDC screening methods (two using fish and one using amphibians) are examined in detail for their efficacy and applicability. Edited by, and with contributions from, a leading participant in regulatory efforts, the book outlines methods that combine sensitivity, efficiency, statistical power, acceptable cost, and minimum ethical concern.