The Autopoiesis of Architecture, Volume II: A New Agenda for Architecture
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The Autopoiesis of Architecture, Volume II: A New Agenda for Architecture

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Patrik Schumacher
1837 g
226x178x56 mm

Introduction to Volume 2 1

6. The Task of Architecture 5

6.1 Functions 7

6.1.1 Functions versus Capacities 11

6.1.2 Substantial versus Subsidiary Functions 17

6.1.3 Tectonics 19

6.1.4 The Categorization of Function-types 22

6.1.5 Problem-types (Function-types) vs Solution-types (Archetypes) 24

6.1.6 Patterns of Decomposition/Composition 30

6.1.7 Functional Reasoning via Action-artefact Networks 32

6.1.8 Limitations of Functional Expertise 39

6.2 Order via Organization and Articulation 42

6.2.1 Organization and Articulation: Historical and Systematic 47

6.2.2 Architectural Order 52

6.2.3 A Definition of Organization for Contemporary Architecture 57

6.2.4 Complicated, Complex, Organized, Ordered 61

6.3 Organization 70

6.3.1 Relating Spatial to Social Organization 72

6.3.2 Territorialization and Integration 77

6.3.3 Systems, Configurations, Organizations 80

6.4 Supplementing Architecture with a Science of Configuration 88

6.4.1 Set Theory 88

6.4.2 Harnessing Network Theory 93

6.4.3 Excursion: Network Theory 99

6.4.4 A City is not a Tree 106

6.4.5 Space Syntax: Concepts and Tools of Analysis 112

6.4.6 Space Syntax: Theoretical Claims 125

6.4.7 From Organization to Articulation: Taking Account of Cognition 131

6.5 Articulation 134

6.5.1 Articulation vs Organization 134

6.5.2 The Problem of Orientation and the Problematic of Legibility 137

6.5.3 Articulate vs Inarticulate Organization 1386.5.4 Articulation as the Core Competency of Architecture 139

6.5.5 Generalizing the Concept of Function 140

6.6 The Phenomenological vs the Semiological Dimension of Architecture 142

6.7 The Phenomenological Dimension of Architectural Articulation 145

6.7.1 The Perceptual Constitution of Objects and Spaces 147

6.7.2 Cognitive Principles of Gestalt-Perception 153

6.7.3 Parametric Figuration 165

6.8 The Semiological Dimension of Architectural Articulation 167

6.8.1 The Built Works of Architecture as Framing Communications 171

6.8.2 Analogy: Language and Built Environment as Media of Communication 176

6.8.3 Signs as Communications 181

6.8.4 Territory as Fundamental Semiological Unit 183

6.8.5 Saussure's Insight: Language as System of Correlated Differences 189

6.8.6 Extra-Semiological Demands on Architecture's Medial Substrate 193

6.8.7 Syntagmatic vs Paradigmatic Relations 196

6.9 Prolegomenon to Architecture's Semiological Project 200

6.9.1 The Scope of Architecture's Signified 201

6.9.2 The Composite Character of the Architectural Sign 206

6.9.3 Absolute and Relative Arbitrariness 210

6.9.4 Natural and Artificial Semiosis 215

6.9.5 Designing Architecture's Semiological Project 222

6.9.6 Cognitive and Attentional Conditions of Architectural Communication 229

6.9.7 Speculation: Expanding the Expressive Power of Architectural Sign Systems 232

6.10 The Semiological Project and the General Project of Architectural Order 238

6.10.1 The Semiological Project in Relation to the Organizational and the Phenomenological Project 239

6.10.2 Relationship between Architectural Languages and Architectural Styles 244

6.10.3 The Requisite Variety of Architectural Articulation 246

7. The Design Process 251

7.1 Contemporary Context and Aim of Design Process Theory 254

7.2 Towards a Contemporary Design Process Reflection and Design Methodology 257

7.2.1 Method vs Process 258

7.3 The Design Process as Problem-solving Process 263

7.3.1 The Design Process as Information-processing Process 264

7.3.2 The Structure of Information-processing Systems 269

7.3.3 Programmes 272

7.3.4 The Task Environment and its Representation as Problem Space 277

7.3.5 Problem Solving as Search in a State Space 284

7.3.6 Planning Spaces 295

7.3.7 Heuristic versus Exhaustive Problem-solving Methods 298

7.4 Differentiating Classical, Modern and Contemporary Processes 311

7.5 Problem Defini
This is the second part of a major theoretical work by Patrik Schumacher, which outlines how the discipline of architecture should be understood as its own distinct system of communication. Autopoeisis comes from the Greek and means literally self-production; it was first adopted in biology in the 1970s to describe the essential characteristics of life as a circular self-organizing system and has since been transposed into a theory of social systems. This new approach offers architecture an arsenal of general comparative concepts. It allows architecture to be understood as a distinct discipline, which can be analyzed in elaborate detail while at the same time offering insightful comparisons with other subject areas, such as art, science and political discourse. On the basis of such comparisons the book insists on the necessity of disciplinary autonomy and argues for a sharp demarcation of design from both art and engineering. Schumacher accordingly argues controversially that design as a discipline has its own sui generis intelligence - with its own internal logic, reach and limitations.
Whereas the first volume provides the theoretical groundwork for Schumacher's ideas - focusing on architecture as an autopoeitic system, with its own theory, history, medium and its unique societal function - the second volume addresses the specific, contemporary challenges and tasks that architecture faces. It formulates these tasks, looking specifically at how architecture is seeking to organize and articulate the complexity of post-fordist network society. The volume explicitly addresses how current architecture can upgrade its design methodology in the face of an increasingly demanding task environment, characterized by both complexity and novelty. Architecture's specific role within contemporary society is explained and its relationship to politics is clarified. Finally, the new, global style of Parametricism is introduced and theoretically grounded.