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Amino Acid Metabolism
99
Figures xiii

Tables xvii

Preface xix

1 Nitrogen Metabolism 1

1.1 Nitrogen fixation 3

1.1.1 Nitrogenase 5

1.2 Nitrification and denitrification 11

1.2.1 The anammox (ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation) reaction 12

1.3 The incorporation of fi xed nitrogen into organic compounds 12

1.3.1 Utilization of nitrite and nitrate in plants 12

1.3.2 Incorporation of ammonium into organic compounds 13

1.4 The synthesis and catabolism of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides 23

1.4.1 Purine synthesis 26

1.4.2 Purine catabolism and salvage 31

1.4.3 Pyrimidine synthesis 38

1.4.4 Pyrimidine catabolism and salvage 43

1.5 Deamination of amino acids 45

1.5.1 Amino acid oxidases 45

1.5.2 Amine oxidases 47

1.5.3 Glutamate and alanine dehydrogenases 48

1.5.4 Non-oxidative deamination of amino acids 49

1.5.5 Glutaminase and asparaginase 50

1.6 Excretion of nitrogenous waste 51

1.6.1 Uricotelic and purinotelic species 51

1.6.2 Ureotelic species 52

1.7 Other nitrogenous compounds in human urine 61

1.7.1 Aminoacidurias 62

Further reading 65

2 Nitrogen Balance and Protein Turnover - Protein and Amino Acids in Human Nutrition 67

2.1 Nitrogen balance and protein requirements 67

2.1.1 Protein digestion and absorption 69

2.1.2 Protein digestibility and unavailable amino acids in dietary proteins 74

2.1.3 Obligatory nitrogen losses 75

2.1.4 Dynamic equilibrium and tissue protein turnover 76

2.1.5 Tissue protein catabolism 77

2.1.6 Whole body protein turnover 81

2.2 Requirements for individual amino acids 86

2.2.1 Nitrogen balance studies 89

2.2.2 Isotope tracer studies 90

2.2.3 Control of protein synthesis by the availability of amino acids 91

2.2.4 Protein quality (protein nutritional value) 92

2.3 The fate of amino acid carbon skeletons and the thermic effect of protein 94

2.4 Inter-organ metabolism of amino acids 99

2.5 Transport of amino acids across membranes 100

2.5.1 Families of amino acid transporters 101

Further reading 104

3 The Role of Vitamin B6 in Amino Acid Metabolism 105

3.1 Pyridoxal phosphate-dependent reactions 106

3.1.1 Families of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzymes 111

3.2 Amino acid racemases 112

3.2.1 Bacterial alanine racemase 112

3.2.2 Eukaryotic serine racemase 113

3.2.3 D-Aspartate in eukaryotes 114

3.2.4 D-Amino acids in aquatic invertebrates 115

3.2.5 D-Amino acids in gene-encoded peptides and proteins 115

3.3 Transamination 117

3.3.1 Dual substrate recognition in transaminases 120

3.3.2 Aspartate transaminase and the malate-aspartate shuttle 120

3.4 Decarboxylation and side-chain elimination and replacement reactions 122

3.4.1 Transamination of decarboxylases and enzymes catalyzing side-chain limination reactions 122

3.5 Pyruvate-containing enzymes 124

3.6 Vitamin B6 defi ciency and dependency 125

Further reading 128

4 Glycine, Serine and the One-Carbon Pool 129

4.1 Sources of glycine 130

4.1.1 Choline as a source of glycine 130

4.1.2 Glycine transaminase 132

4.2 The interconversion of glycine and serine 132

4.2.1 Serine hydroxymethyltransferase 133

4.2.2 The glycine cleavage system 135

4.2.3 Serine hydroxymethyltransferase and the glycine cleavage system in photosynthetic tissue 136

4.2.4 Non-ketotic and ketotic hyperglycinaemia 137

4.3 Glycine oxidase and glyoxylate metabolism 138

4.3.1 Primary hyperoxaluria 140

4.4 One-carbon metabolism 141

4.5 Serine biosynthesis 141

4.6 Serine catabolism 144

4.6.1 Serine transamination 144

4.6.2 Serine deaminase 145

4.7 Peptidyl glycine hydroxylase (peptide alpha-amidase) 146

4.8 5-Aminolevulinic acid and porphyrin synthesis 147

4.8.1 Porphyrias - diseases of porphyrin synthesis 151

4.9 Selenocysteine 152

Further reading 154

5 Amino Acids Synthesized from Glutamate: Glutamine, Proline, Ornithine, Citrulline and Arginine 157

5.1 Synthesis of 5-aminol
Amino Acid Metabolism, 3rd Edition covers all aspects of the biochemistry and nutritional biochemistry of the amino acids. Starting with an overview of nitrogen fixation and the incorporation of inorganic nitrogen into amino acids, the book then details other major nitrogenous compounds in micro-organisms, plants and animals. Contents include a discussion of the catabolism of amino acids and other nitrogenous compounds in animals, and the microbiological reactions involved in release of nitrogen gas back into the atmosphere. Mammalian (mainly human) protein and amino acid requirements are considered in detail, and the methods that are used to determine them.
Chapters consider individual amino acids, grouped according to their metabolic origin, and discussing their biosynthesis (in plants and micro-organisms for those that are dietary essentials for human beings), major metabolic roles (mainly in human metabolism) and catabolism (again mainly in human metabolism). There is also discussion of regulatory mechanisms for all these metabolic pathways, and of metabolic and genetic diseases affecting the (human) metabolism of amino acids.

Throughout the book the emphasis is on the nutritional importance of amino acids, integration and control of metabolism and metabolic and other disturbances of relevance to human biochemistry and health.
Completely revised edition of this comprehensive text covering all the latest findings in amino acid metabolism research
Written by an authority in the field
Covers new advances in structural biology
Clear illustrations of all structures and metabolic pathways
Full list of recommended further reading for each chapter and bibliography of papers cited in the text

Mehr zum Thema

    Science; SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Biochemistry

Produktdetails

Autor: David A. Bender
ISBN-13: 9780470661512
ISBN: 0470661518
Einband: Buch
Seiten: 456
Gewicht: 839 g
Format: 246x175x28 mm
Sprache: Englisch
Autor: David A. Bender
InhaltsangabeFigures xiii Tables xvii Preface xix 1 Nitrogen Metabolism 1 1.1 Nitrogen fixation 3 1.1.1 Nitrogenase 5 1.2 Nitrification and denitrification 11 1.2.1 The anammox (ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation) reaction 12 1.3 The incorporation of fi xed nitrogen into organic compounds 12 1.3.1 Utilization of nitrite and nitrate in plants 12 1.3.2 Incorporation of ammonium into organic compounds 13 1.4 The synthesis and catabolism of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides 23 1.4.1 Purine synthesis 26 1.4.2 Purine catabolism and salvage 31 1.4.3 Pyrimidine synthesis 38 1.4.4 Pyrimidine catabolism and salvage 43 1.5 Deamination of amino acids 45 1.5.1 Amino acid oxidases 45 1.5.2 Amine oxidases 47 1.5.3 Glutamate and alanine dehydrogenases 48 1.5.4 Nonoxidative deamination of amino acids 49 1.5.5 Glutaminase and asparaginase 50 1.6 Excretion of nitrogenous waste 51 1.6.1 Uricotelic and purinotelic species 51 1.6.2 Ureotelic species 52 1.7 Other nitrogenous compounds in human urine 61 1.7.1 Aminoacidurias 62 Further reading 65 2 Nitrogen Balance and Protein Turnover - Protein and Amino Acids in Human Nutrition 67 2.1 Nitrogen balance and protein requirements 67 2.1.1 Protein digestion and absorption 69 2.1.2 Protein digestibility and unavailable amino acids in dietary proteins 74 2.1.3 Obligatory nitrogen losses 75 2.1.4 Dynamic equilibrium and tissue protein turnover 76 2.1.5 Tissue protein catabolism 77 2.1.6 Whole body protein turnover 81 2.2 Requirements for individual amino acids 86 2.2.1 Nitrogen balance studies 89 2.2.2 Isotope tracer studies 90 2.2.3 Control of protein synthesis by the availability of amino acids 91 2.2.4 Protein quality (protein nutritional value) 92 2.3 The fate of amino acid carbon skeletons and the thermic effect of protein 94 2.4 Interorgan metabolism of amino acids 99 2.5 Transport of amino acids across membranes 100 2.5.1 Families of amino acid transporters 101 Further reading 104 3 The Role of Vitamin B6 in Amino Acid Metabolism 105 3.1 Pyridoxal phosphate-dependent reactions 106 3.1.1 Families of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzymes 111 3.2 Amino acid racemases 112 3.2.1 Bacterial alanine racemase 112 3.2.2 Eukaryotic serine racemase 113 3.2.3 DAspartate in eukaryotes 114 3.2.4 DAmino acids in aquatic invertebrates 115 3.2.5 DAmino acids in geneencoded peptides and proteins 115 3.3 Transamination 117 3.3.1 Dual substrate recognition in transaminases 120 3.3.2 Aspartate transaminase and the malate-aspartate shuttle 120 3.4 Decarboxylation and side-chain elimination and replacement reactions 122 3.4.1 Transamination of decarboxylases and enzymes catalyzing side-chain limination reactions 122 3.5 Pyruvatecontaining enzymes 124 3.6 Vitamin B6 defi ciency and dependency 125 Further reading 128 4 Glycine, Serine and the One-Carbon Pool 129 4.1 Sources of glycine 130 4.1.1 Choline as a source of glycine 130 4.1.2 Glycine transaminase 132 4.2 The interconversion of glycine and serine 132 4.2.1 Serine hydroxymethyltransferase 133 4.2.2 The glycine cleavage system 135 4.2.3 Serine hydroxymethyltransferase and the glycine cleavage system in photosynthetic tissue 136 4.2.4 Nonketotic and ketotic hyperglycinaemia 137 4.3 Glycine oxidase and glyoxylate metabolism 138 4.3.1 Primary hyperoxaluria 140 4.4 Onecarbon metabolism 141 4.5 Serine biosynthesis 141 4.6 Serine catabolism 144 4.6.1 Serine transamination 144 4.6.2 Serine deaminase 145 4.7 Peptidyl glycine hydroxylase (peptide alpha-amidase) 146 4.8 5Aminolevulinic acid and porphyrin synthesis 147 4.8.1 Porphyrias - diseases of porphyrin synthesis 151 4.9 Selenocysteine 152 Further reading 154 5 Amino Acids Synthesized from Glutamate: Glutamine, Proline, Ornithine, Citrulline and Arginine 157 5.1 Synthesis of 5-aminol

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Autor: David A. Bender
ISBN-13:: 9780470661512
ISBN: 0470661518
Erscheinungsjahr: 04.09.2012
Verlag: PAPERBACKSHOP UK IMPORT
Gewicht: 839g
Seiten: 456
Sprache: Englisch
Auflage 00003
Sonstiges: Buch, 246x175x28 mm